- Created by: amisavage99
- Created on: 19-06-17 14:53
To what extent was enclosure responsible for the o
To what extent was enclosure responsible for the outbreak of rebellion in 1549?
- Enclosure (policies/impact):
- Commissions to collect evidence/enforce laws (to reduce rural depopulation/increase grain production by discouraging sheep farming)
- Somerset's weakness as a ruler:
- Refused to end the debasement of the coinage (in deep depression) - turned to enclosure instead
- Social turmoil and economic difficulties (1549 was year of the many headed monster)
- Rising population, inflation and unemployment - standards of living declined (exacerbated by religious change)
- Work was difficult to find - migration to towns
- Rise in grain prices - worsened by below-average harvests
- Decline and depression in the cloth trade
- Instability of the Antwerp cloth market led to unemployment in East Anglia
- England's biggest industry - serious repercussion for dependent communities
- The Vagrancy Act (1547)/ Sheep Tax (1548) - contributed to unrest - harsh/unenforceable/ damaged 'good duke'
- Breakdown in the notion and principles of the Great Chain of Being
- Harsh legislation showed little concern for the poor - seen as causes of riots/ sedition -
- Unpopular/ unenforceable - damaged Somerset's reputation
'Opposition to enclosures had little impact on Som
- 'Opposition to enclosures had little impact on Somerset's rule in the years 1547-49.' How far do you agree with this statement?
- How far did the depression in the cloth trade contribute to the outbreak of rebellion in 1549?
- Cloth contributed, but also Enclosure, socio-economic problems, Somerset himself and a breakdown in the principles of the Great Chain of Being
- How accurate is it to say that Somerset's policies were primarily responsible for the social and economic instability that led to rebellion in 1549?
- How accurate is it to say that Somerset's fall from power was the most important consequence of the 1549 rebellions?
- 'Protector Somerset's power was fundamentally weakened by the 1549 rebellions.' How far do you agree with this statement?
How accurate is it to say that Somerset's enclosur
How accurate is it to say that Somerset's enclosure commissions led to the outbreak of riots and rebellion?
- Grievances caused by Somerset's enclosure commissions (only made things worse):
- Commissions blamed all economic problems (inflation and unemployment) on enclosure
- John Hales (MP who led the commission)/ his commissioners were blocked by the gentry/ led to confrontations e.g. Buckinghamshire (vital to maximise profits, especially move from arable to pastoral farming)
- Commoners frustrated when the commissioners didn't resolve the enclosure disputes
- Led to further restrictions (limiting leaseholds/ wool tax - which the poor couldn't avoid)
- Increased tensions between landlords/tenants - riots in multiple counties
- Rebellion was also caused by:
- Rising prices/ local food shortages
- Somerset was nicknamed 'the Good Duke'/ Hales was genuinely concerned about the treatment of the poor
How successful was Somerset's enclosure policy in
How successful was Somerset's enclosure policy in solving the problems associated with high inflation and rising unemployment by 1549?
Successes of his policies
- Earnt him the title of 'the Good Duke'
- John Hales genuinely wanted socio-economic reform
Exacerbation of the situation
- His policies were aimed at promoting arable farming as opposed to less labour-intensive farming (hoped to reduce unemployment/inflation)
- Didn't full understand the scope of problems
- Didn't have a credible plan
- Further measures from commission exacerbated the situation - e.g. Wool tax, which the poor couldn't avoid, and limitations on the size of leaseholds
'The main reason for the outbreak of protest and r
'The main reason for the outbreak of protest and rebellion in 1549 was the anger caused by cruel and unsympathetic landlords.' How far do you agree?
- Anger caused by cruel and unsympathetic landlords led to the outbreak of rebellion:
- e.g. Sir John Flowerdew (lawyer, bought local Church property) - also in dispute with Kett over land
- Other factors caused the outbreak of rebellion:
- Confused nature of discontent in the lower orders against the economic changes - densely populated/ highly industrialised nature of East Anglia/ Norwich as a textile centre
- Unrest over enclosures
- High rents
How accurate is it to say that Kett posed a seriou
How accurate is it to say that Kett posed a serious threat to Somerset and the royal government in 1549?
- Tanner/ well versed in business/economics - Yeoman from Wymondham, fairly wealthy (property in excess of £600) and respected
- Well organised/ charismatic leader - organised the rebel articles, believed that Somerset would understand the reasons for the rebellion/ resolve the complaints. Also issued warrants for food supplies and weapons, set up the 'tree of reformation' at Mousehold Heath
- Commanded a large rebel army - 16,000 strong (vastly outnumbered troops)
- Local man, knew the region - helped with planning
- Strategic - march to/from Norwich was a significant act - challenged the government to react with force/ concessions
- The King was a minor - and wouldn't have understand the rebellion's threat
- Sporadic attacks - proved that separate communities were equally discontent
Aspects less threatening
- Claimed to rebel for the 'good of the commonwealth' throughout - pledged his loyalty to the King
How accurate is it to say that Kett's poor leaders
How accurate is it to say that Kett's poor leadership was the main reason for the failure of his rebellion in 1549?
Poor leadership was the main reason for the rebellion
Other factors contributing to Kett's failure
- Rebel force was inherently weak - mostly comprised of commoners - labourers, vagrants and farmers, who were no match against well-armed/paid professional troops