Cognitive stage of learning
Cognitive Phase occurs when we are first learning a skill. During this stage mostly external feedback is used because the performer will have no prior knowledge of the skill so they will need to learn from someone, their coach for example. Initially goals are set and models and demonstrations are used a lot. While the improvement is fast, movements are jerky and uncoordinated. It demands high attention and concentration from the performer.
All types of guidance will be used at this stage, however some will be used more than others. Visual will be used more than verbal to create a mental image in the performers mind. Manual and mechanical could be highly utilised to start to develop a kinaestethic feel depending on the sport.
Associative stage of learning
- Specific motor programmes and subroutines are developed relevant to sport
- Consistency and coordination improve rapidly, timing and anticipation improve
- Improvement is less rapid due to the performer having to practise more.
At this stage more internal feedback is used by the performer because they have a basic understanding of the movement and are also starting to develop their kinaestethic feel for the movement so they can use these to give themselves feedback, however external feedback is stilll used to develop the skill further. Also more verbal feedback is used because the performer has a mental image so they need less visual feedback through demonstrations.
Autonomous stage of learning
- This stage occurs when the skill being learned has become automatic, the performer does not have to consciously think about the movement
- At this stage the performer can concentrate on the finer details of the skill rather than the whole skill.
At this stage the performer will be mostly using internal feedback, this is because the performer has fully developed their kinaestethic feel for the movement. They may still seek some extrnal feedback from their coach but this would be about the finer details of the skill and would be put across to the performer using mostly verbal feedback.