2b.2 Radicalisation of resistance and the consolidation of national party power 1960-68

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why did opposition to apartheid increase during th

  • usual pass offense was £5-£8 or 5-8 weeks imprisonment
  • 80% families in Johannesburg lived on £20 a week 1960
  • Robert Sobukwe leader of the PAC
  • Sharpville is in the Vall triangle and was the center of protest
  • Sharpville had a bus boycott in 1959 and 15 people were killed
  • a PAC group was established in Sharpville in 1959
  • Sharpville massacre happened 21 march 1960 were 5,000 people surrounded a police station with PAC leader requesting them to be arrested
  • 200 policemen with rifles were outside and ordered to open fire, 69 people died with 187 injured
  • Sharpville caused international criticism
  • Sharpville was heavily documented and photographs hit international newsstands
  • Sharpville massacre caused the United Nations to condemn Sharpville and call for a reversal of apartheid and racial discrimination
  • 28th march ANC organized a mass pass burning and Albert Luthuli burned his in front of the media
  • march 30th state of emergency put in place
  • the police used the public safety act 1953 to arrest political leaders without warrants
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Why did opposition to apartheid increase during th

  • Albert Luthuli was assaulted after his arrest
  • 8th April 1960 unlawful organisation act passed which banned parties that threatened public order
  • 9th April Verwoerd shot by a white English speaking man
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Why did south Africa become a republic in 1961

  • 1958 election secured an NP majority
  • SA wanted to be free from the British constitutional tie with the commonwealth
  • SA had no TV until 1976
  • Harold Macmillan conservative prime minister of Britain had an African tour in 1960 to keep ties with SA because of the cold war
  • 52% voted for the republic, a narrow win
  • Black opposition parties rejected the move
  • SA became a republic in 1961
  • due to undiplomatic behavior by Verwoerd Britain and Australia said they couldn't keep SA in the commonwealth
  • Britan was the colonial power in SA neighbor territories: Bechuanaland, Protectorate, Basutoland and swaziland
  • The UK was the main area for people to fleeing SA
  • British companies through Sharpvillie had triggered a brief withdrawal of investment from south africa
  • British companies were the largest external investors in SA
  • SA a major uranium supplier
  • 1962 UN issued a resolution to ban imports and exports to SA, however, these were voluntary
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Did the ANC and PAC radicalise after 1960

  • PState of emergency lifted in august 1960
  • 1961 ANC decided to used armed struggle
  • ANC's armed organization called MK but wasn't formally linked to the ANC or CP it was a theory of an independent military wing
  • the soviet union made the largest financial contribution for the MK
  • 1961 group of African men sent to china for guerilla tactic training
  • first major sabotage was planned for December 1961
  • The PAC's military wing was called Poqo 1961
  • Poqo was a movement among migrant workers but kept its Ideologies and justified violence against whites
  • few whites were actually killed in the Poqo campaign and Poqo wasn't as committed as MK was
  • Mandela arrested 1962 in Riviona at MK headquarters
  • Riviona trial- Mandela and MK leaders were tried for recruiting fighters, attempting to commit sabotage, having links w communism and soliciting money with foreign states
  • the prosecutor called for the death sentence but the judge called life imprisonment. 
  • Robert sobukwe already incarcerated in Robben island
  • communication from inside to outside was difficult and the leaders were isolated and Mandela was unable to lead the MK in exile
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Did the ANC and PAC radicalise after 1960

  • Joe Modise became the leader of the MK
  • Oliver Tambo deputy president of ANC put into exile
  • Tambo traveled Europe to get international support and addressed the UN directly
  • the anti-apartheid movement was a global movement  
  • 1959 boycott movement started and focused on SA products such as sherry
  • Swedish gov gave direct support to AAM Canada and Netherlands also housed the AAM
  • however, AAM struggled to get widespread support
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What factors strengthened apartheid or separate de

  • SA still dependent on mining and agriculture for its exports
  • the gov failed to invest enough in education for the population
  • manufacturers and marketers identified the black market
  • industrial workers saw a 50% wage increase during the 1960's
  • SA produced 95,000 cars in 1960 and 195,000 in 1970
  • during apartheid, alcohol was prohibited to blacks
  • SA become more isolated in the 1960's
  • companies like Barclays banks, coco cola, Volkswagen were established in SA
  • voster saw an increase in police powers 
  • police were given 180 days to detain people without trial under the terrorism act 1967
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