Gustav Stressemann and the Policy of fulfillment:
- All German Classes agreed that the TofV was unfair and dictated.
- Denied Germany being a great empire in Europe.
- Placed many Germans in non-German places.
- All Governments during 1919-33's foreign policy only obeyed TofV.
- Caused Party divisions over how to obey it.
- Nationalists wanted to scrap the treaty and rebuild it's military until it can regain it's lost territories again, being a great independent empire.
- Stressemann was tact and came up with the 'policy of fulfilment'.
- The policy of fulfilment meant Germany would Cooperate with the Allies on issues like reparations and removing allied territorial occupation.
- Stressemann was Foreign minister, brought hyperinflation under control, ended passive resistance and talked for Dawes plan.
- French left the Ruhr in 1925.
- Stressemann knew their suspicion was a problem for revising the TofV.
- Stressemann wanted French to know Germany had peaceful intentions and this was shown in the Locorno Pact in 1925.
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Locorno Pact 1925:
- October 1925, West Europe powers met at Locorno.
- Stressemann wanted to rebuild German international position.
- Wanted no hostility between Britain and France but German industrial recovery threatened them.
- France were suspicious but agreed to attend as well as the Allies.
- Agreed on Rhineland Pact and Arbitration Treaties.
- Germany, France and Belgium respected the western front. It was now fixed and guaranteed.
- Germany agreed to keep troops out the Rhineland.
- Britain agreed to aid Germany and France if attacked.
- Germany agreed with France, Belgium and Poland that's disputes should be sorted via conciliation committee.
- France signed a mutual guarantee with Poland and Czechslovakia.
- France made show Germany didn't didn't break agreements.
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Locorno Pact 1925:
- Also, any conflict regarding the western borders was to be dealt by the LofN
- France were not allowed in Germany if there was any dispute between Germany and Poland/Czechslovakia.
- Locorno Pact was seen as success. Germany finally recognised the western border put in at Versailes.
- They accepted loss of Alsace Lorraine and Eupen Malmedy to Frae
- French were promised support from Britain if attacked.
- Germany's 1923 Occupation of the Ruhr could never be repeated.
- French withdrew forces in Rhineland and done with no assurance that Germany would disarm.
- Stressemann saw Locarno pact as his best achievement.
- Germany was now in the League of Nations too.
- Stressemann made Germany more diplomatic negotiable with Western powers.
- He achieved so much and lost little.
- The Nationalists attacked him for appeasing the allies.
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Relationship with the USSR:
- After revolution in 1917 in Russia it took a communist path as it became first communist state in 1922. Peoples rights were subordinate to the state.
- Germany in 1918 took a democratic path, more individual freedom.
- But Germany had a large communist party that wanted close links with Russia.
- Both countries had similarities after war.
- Both were defeated and suffered from punishing treaties.
- Both felt the creation of Poland threatened their security.
- Both were treated like outcasts and banned from the LofN.
- Many thought both countries should be closer as a result. Walther Rathenau negotiated a Treaty of Rapallo with Russia. The Terms were:
- Both would trade and make economic cooperation.
- Both would have diplomatic relations.
- All claims for war damage were dropped.
- Germany could train pilots and build weapons in Russia without Allied scrutiny.
- For Germany this was a step away from Post-war isolation.
- French were angered as it showed Germany hiding from disarmement terms and refused the Eastern frontier with Poland.
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Treaty of Berlin:
- April 1926, Germany and USSR renwed the Treaty of Rapallo.
- Germany wouldn't interfere if USSR was in war as long as it didn't start it.
- Signed 1 year after Locorno Pact, it showed despite guarantee to Westen frontiers, it made sure it did the same and get a revision with Eastern frontiers.
- To do this it needed a close relationship with USSR as they would resist any border changes it didn't agree with.
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Extent of Disarmament:
- Under the TofV, Germany was limited to 100,000 men, wasn't allowed an air force and it's navy weren't allowed submarines or battleships.
- Rhine was demiliterised and German forts were dismantled with no troops in the area.
- In order to make sure they listened, a 'Inter-Allied Contro Commission' was made in Germany to moniter their disarmement.
- The disarmament clause caused resentment as the allies maintained their forces.
- The Treaty of Rapallo showed how Germany tried to find other ways of avoiding disarmament and they made submarines in Spain and Tanks in Sweden.
- The rearmement didn't Germany fully operational with an air force or army with unlimted weapons.
- It did make sure Germany wasn't behind in technological developments though.
- The German forts in the Rhine were dismantled build rebuily along the Polish frontier.
- Under army general Von Seeckt's command Germany found other ways of getting more men in the army and made sure there was a reserve of highly trained military force via a paramilitary.
- He tried making a military alliance with Russia which planned to destroy Poland.
- Von Seeckt secretly rearmed Germany which was tactically approved by Politicians.
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Kellogg-Briand Pact and the End of Allied Occupati
- 1928, France and USA signed this pact with Germany.
- US secretary of the state, Frank Kellogg and Arstide Briand, Foreign minister of France.
- Made international agreements where states would voluntarly renounc the ue of offensive war to resolve disputes.
- Germany was first to sign.
- The pact avoided war but it wasn't enforced very effectively.
END OF ALLIED OCCUPATION:
- Getting rid of foreign forces on German soil was every parties goal.
- Policy of fulfilment acheived this by 1930.
- French were most reluctant to withrdraw, although suspicious of Germany willing to comply with the TofV.
- The withdrawal of forces was a step by step concession and compromise.
- The Dawes plan and Locarno pact was evidence of willing to talk with allies.
- Allies withdrew from the Zone I in Rhineland in 1926 and IMCC.
- Once the Young Plan was agreed n 1929 the way was clear to withdraw of remaining forces.
- Allies withdrew from Zone 2 in 1929 and Zone 3 in 1930.
- Success was due to the policies of Stresssemann.
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