1st crusade events

  • Created by: mrevv
  • Created on: 20-12-19 10:04

People's crusade

  • Led by Peter the Hermit, this set off in Spring 1096.
  • A week after 40k peasants arrived in Constantinople, Alexius sent them to Asia minor.
  • They did not have soliders or supplies. 
  • National rivalries and language barriers stopped the French, Germans and Italians uniting. 
  • They took control of Nicaea, but not its well so they lost the castle to Kilij Arslan.
  • Remaining crusaders managed to join the main army.
  • Many were lost en route during Jewish pogroms in Europe.
  • Thier raids on the locals were mostly unsucessful. 
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Leaders in the first crusade- French

  • Hugh of Vermandois, brother of the King of France. He was the first to arrive and became shipwrecked, and swore Alexius' oath- however he abandoned the crusade after Antioch.
  • Raymond of Toulouse, old and wealthy, had 20k followers, fought a lot with Bohemond at Antioch and wanted to be the overall leader, kept his oath and became count of Tripoli.
  • Northern French contingent- Stephen of Blois, Robert of Flanders and Robert of Normandy- Stephen claimed he was leader at Antioch but he fled after being forced twice to go on crusade by his wife, but Normandy and Flanders fought to the end at Ascalon.
  • Adhemar of le Puy, the papal legate who travelled with Raymond, died at Antioch from disease.
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Leaders in the first crusade- German and Norman

  • Godfrey of Bouillon, became protector of Jerusalem, travelled with his brother Eustace and Baldwin of Boulogne. He was forced into the oath but he was very pious, mortgaging his lands.
  • Baldwin of Boulogne, conquered Edessa and left the crusade by Thoros adopting him as his son, then Thoros was overthrown and murdered, leaving Baldwin as count. 
  • Bohemond of Taranto, did not expect to crusade, disinherited from his father's wealth, ambitious for wealth and territory, travelled with his nephew Tancred, agreed to the oath, skilled general, became Prince of Antioch then left the crusade. 
  • The Princes' backgrounds led to separation and fighting, due to language barriers, greed, Alexius' oath, and thier priorities of winning land or piety. 
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  • The 4 contingents (N. and S. French, Germans and Lotharingians, and Italian Normans) arrived in 1096-7. Alexius told them to take an oath, and most leaders accepted.
  • Bohemond did not intend on keeping his oath and Raymond took his own oath.
  • Baldwin of Boulogne and Tancred bypassed Constantinople to avoid the oath. 
  • They spoke different languages, had different religions, and concerns.
  • Alexius wanted to recover Byzantine land, not Jerusalem. He did not want to take charge. 
  • The money he gave the crusades had to be used to purchase inflated food from his markets.
  • The armies were angry about being limited round the city, cold and tired. 
  • Alexius' oath involved fealty and handing over conquered land. 
  • The 250k Byzantines were shocked by the crusaders' behaviour. 
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  • The Seljuk capital since 1086, Nicaea was 100 miles from constantinople, and threatened Alexius. Moreover, it was strategic to control Anatolia thorugh. 
  • The crusaders showed good unity by sharing a common war chest and the leaders met in the new council of princes to divide thier troops between Bohemond and Raymond. 
  • Lake Ascanian stopped the Nicaeans from getting supplies, so the crusaders blocked it off.
  • The emir Kilij Arslan was away fighting a Danishmed tribe, expecting the crusaders to be as weak as the people's crusade. The city was taken.
  • The inhabitants of the city surrendered to the Byzantine ships instead of the crusaders.
  • This meant they could not pillage Nicaea or gain any booty. 
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  • The crusaders travelled in two separate columns without an overall leader.
  • Anatolia was covered in high plateaus so Turkish archers could ambush the crusade.
  • Bohemond was ambushed and forced into his camp.
  • Godfrey arrived to relieve the attack and they held ranks to defeat Arslan.
  • The rest of thier march was desperately hot, without enough water.
  • Horses died due to lack of vegetation, and only 1000 were left they reached Tarsus mountains.
  • 80% of knights lost horses, and they relied on Armenian christians to survive. 
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  • Tancred and Baldwin left the main army and attacked Tarsus. 
  • Baldwin took Tarsus from Tancred and refused to give it to Alexius.
  • Tancred and Baldwin openly fought in Mamistra, and Tancred left.
  • Baldwin's wife had died so he lost his Norman inheritance.
  • In Edessa Thoros faced growing opposition to his Byzantine allegiences, and he invited Baldwin to become his adopted son in 1098. 
  • Thoros was murdered the same year leaving Baldwin as ruler. 
  • While Baldwin no longer fought, he gave money to the crusaders. 
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Antioch's seige

  • 1097, the crusaders met by the Orontes river. 
  • Godfrey and Bohemond wanted a seige, but Raymond wanted a direct assult. 
  • Tancred, the Atheling and a Genoese fleet at St Symeon port arrived with food and weapons. 
  • Many died of hunger or disease, resorting to eating horses or humans. 
  • Peter the Hermit tried to desert, and the Byzantines left.
  • The Atheling's supplies built a fort and seige engines, 
  • The walls and Yagi Siyan were formidable, and they lost Adhemar's papal banner. 
  • Taticius from Byzantium and Stephen of Blois deserted for good, persuading Alexius not to releive the seige. 
  • Ridwan of Aleppo tried to lift the seige but Bohemond fought him off. 
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Antioch's capture

  • Bohemond negotiated with Firouz to open the gates .
  • Raymond demanded that the city was given to Alexius, but the other leaders gave in. 
  • The Antiocheans were massacred, following 8 months of seige. 
  • Leading up to the battle Raymond and Tancred had needed to forage for food and supplies.
  • By 4th June 1098, the crusaders were beseiged by 50k under Kerbouga of Mosul.
  • The priest Stephen ad a vision of God promising help, so the princes swore not to abandon. 
  • Peter Bartholemew had a vision of the Holy lance being buried in St Peter's cathedral. 
  • It was discovered and they rode into battle behind it, despite a lack of horses.
  • Kerbouga's army was filled with mistrust and divisions between Duqaq and Ridwan.
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Antioch's aftermath

  • Bohemond stationed troops near gates and used reserve troops and 7 divisions, showing military organisation. 
  • Raymond held on to some territory for Alexius, but this angered Bohemond.
  • Hugh of Vermandois was sent to appeal to Alexius for help, but he ignored Raymond.
  • Adhemar died in 1098 and neither leader was ready to move on.
  • Poor crusaders turned against Raymond and pulled down Maarat's walls.
  • Raymond walked barefoot around the city as penance and he decided to move on.
  • They purchased horses from local Muslim towns and set off for Jerusalem. 
  • Raymond tried to take Arqua but he gave up when the Caliph of Bagdad arrived.
  • Crusaders shifted their loyalty to Bohemond. 
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  • The Fatmid govenor Iftikhar was prepared and expelled all the Christians. 
  • Wells and springs were poisoned, trees were chopped down and food was stored away.
  • When the crusaders heard a relief force was coming, Peter Desedrius had a vision of Adhemar who said to take a fasting (starving!) walk around the city as penance.
  • Godfrey fought directly, attacked different walls and united his followers.
  • Tancred discovered hidden timber to build three seige engines and a movable tower.
  • Godfrey and Baldwin of Boulogne attacked St Stephen's gate and Raymond attacked Jaffa Gate. Both gates fell and the city fell. 
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  • The Muslims led a counter attack by Ascalon, from Egypt.
  • Godfrey led a group of princes, and following the battle he was elected ruler of Jerusalem.
  • Raymond was angry and held onto the tower of David until a follower betrayed him.
  • Ascslon remained in muslim hands to threaten Jerusalem for years to come.
  • The crusaders were again divided between Raymond and Godfrey. 
  • This ended the first crusade and most returned home. 
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