• Created by: Rosalind
  • Created on: 15-05-14 19:56

Mood in 1919

January 1919 Britain, Frace and USA drew up a treaty to deal with Germany

British and French felt strongly that Germany were to blame for the war and should be punished

All of teh countries that fought in the war apart from USA were exhausted

Their economies and industries were in a very bad state and ordinary civilians faced shortages of food and medicine

Almost every family in britain had lost a family member in the war

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Aims of the Leaders


  • saw the treaty as an opourtunity to cripple Germany so that it couldn't attack France again
  • wanted germany broken up into little states
  • he demanded a treaty that would weaken Germany as much as possible

Woodrow Wilson

  • believed germnay should be punished
  • but didn't want the Treaty to be too harsh - germany would seek revenge one day
  • he aimed to strengthen democracy so its people wouldn't let its leader casue another war
  • believed nations should co operate to achieve world peace
  • Jan 1918 published his 14 points
  • 14th point was to set up the League of Nations

David Lloyd George

  • often on middle ground
  • wanted germnay to be justly punished but to lose its navy so it didn't threaten Britain's navy
  • Germany had also been Britains biggest trading partner and didn't want to lose this
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Disagreement s and Compromises

Clemenceau and Wilson clashed over many issues because the USA had not suffered as badly as france did

Lloyd George and Clemenceau gave Wilson what he wanted concerning eastern europe

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Treaty of Versailles

War guilt clause - Germany were to accept responisbility for starting the war

Reparations - Germany had to pay £6.6 million

German territories and colonies - germany's overseas colonies were taken away and given as mandates to be controlled by the League of Nations

Germany armed forces 

  • army limited to 100,000 men
  • conscription banned
  • not allowed armoured vehicles, submarines or aircraft
  • only allowed 6 battle ships
  • Rhineland demilitarised

League of Nations - an international 'police force' to try and keep peace

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German Reactions to the Treaty of Versailles

The German economy was already in tatters and paying reparations would cripple them

Germany's army was a symbol of German pride

They also lost the Saar and Upper Silesia which were Germany's main industrial areas. 

They felt insulted by nto being able to join the League of Nations

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Impact of the Treaty on Germany

Tipped Germany into chaos

Ebert's right wing oppostition attempted a revolution against him - Kapp Putsch 

but this was defeated by Ebert calling a general strike

In 1923, Germany failed to pay its reparations so teh French invaded the Ruhr

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Verdicts on the Treaty

Clemenceau thought the terms were not harsh enough. In 1920 he was voted out of power

Lloyd George recieved a hero's welcome when he returned to Britain. But later he indicated that he believed another would would happen soon

Wilson was dissapointed with the Treaty and said that if he were a German he would not have signed it

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The Other Treaties

Treaty of St Germain 1919 - dealt with Austria

  • separated austria from hungary
  • army was restricted to 30,000
  • was forbidden to join with Germany

Treaty of Neuilly 1919 - dealt with Bulgaria

  • Lost land to greece, romania and yugoslavia
  • armed forces limited to 20,000
  • pay £100 million in reparations

Treaty of Trianon 1920 - dealt with Hungary

  • involved the transfer of territories
  • industries suffered fromloss of workers and raw materials
  • should have paid reparations but its economy was too weak

Treaty of Sevres 1920 - dealt with Turkey

  • lost territory
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