18th/19th Century Individuals

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Edward Jenner

WHEN? 18th/19th Century

WHO? Country Doctor

BEFORE- Diseases (eg smallpox) killed thousands. Previos method- inoculation (giving people mild form of diease)- doctors would make large amount of money

WHAT HE DID- Discovered that milkmaids who caught cowpox were immune to smallpox- useds a vaccination

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Edward Jenner

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • CHANCE- Lucky to discover people with cowpox where immune to smallpox
  • GOVERNMENT- Given £50,000 by English government to fund work & President of USA supported Jenner- also Napoleon who vaccinated all his soldiers

OBSTACLES FACED

  • Doctors disliked new method- cheap- lose money
  • Feared it was harmful & wouldn't work
  • Couldn't explain how it worked- made people suspicious

 

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Edward Jenner

SHORT TERM IMPACT

  • Saved lives
  • Introduced a new method of preventing a dangerous disease

LONG TERM IMPACTS

  • Jenner was the first immuniser- basis of Pasteurs work 7 others
  • Vaccination made compulsory in 19th Century
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James Simpson

WHEN? 19th Century

WHO? Edinburgh Surgeon

BEFORE- Surgery in 19th Century- very dangerous. No way of solving problem of pain. Early methods of anaesthesia- laughing gas & ether- had problems

WHAT HE DID- Discovered Chloroform & realised it worked as an anaesthetic- campaigned for its use in surgery

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James Simpson

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • CHANCE- Discovery while experimenting with chemicals- lucky
  • SUPPORT- Queen Victoria used it with the birth of her 8th child- royal approval
  • TECHNOLOGY- Development of chemistry- substances for S to work with

OBSTACLES FACED

  • Church was against use- pain was a blessing from God
  • Surgeons attempted more complicated opperations
  • Army surgeons- preffered patient to be awake
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James Simpson

SHORT TERM IMPACT

  • Brought immediate relief to those suffering in surgery

LONG TERM IMPACT

  • Started procress towards Aseptic surgery- cleaner & safer opperating theatres
  • Successful- more complicated procedures- save more lives
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Joesph Lister

WHEN? 19th Century

WHO? Professor of Surgery

BEFORE- Huge problem of infection during surgery

WHAT HE DID- Found spraying carbolic acid over everything curing an opperation limited infection- following this with a bandage, the wound would heal and not become infected

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Joesph Lister

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • SCIENCE- Pateurs germ theory- microorganisms spread disease & caused infection
  • POWERFUL SUPPORT- Recieved an award from a university in Paris- highlighted work
  • INDIVIDUAL GENIUS- Had seen carbolic spray used to treat sewage- thought it could be used in surgey

OBSTACLES FACED

  • Listers spray soaked everything in an opperation- cracked skin & smelled-unpopular
  • Didn't give public displays of his work- suspicious
  • Surgeons believed speed was essential- spray slowed them down- unpopular
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Joesph Lister

SHORT TERM IMPACT

  • Operating theatres became cleaner & infection spread less

LONG TERM IMPACT

  • Started the process of Aseptic surgery
  • Cleanliness became normal with sterile equipment, clean clothing & environment
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Robert Koch

WHEN?  19th Century

WHO? German Doctor

BEFORE- People didn't know what caused diease to spread or how to find cures- no way to treat diseases

WHAT HE DID- Discovered the microbes that caused Tuberculosis, Cholera & others- developed a way of extracting baterium & provided a system for others to follow. Developed a way of staining bacteria so you could study their behaviour

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Robert Koch

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • SCIENCE- Powerful microscopes allowed Koch to study the behaviour of bacteria
  • WAR- French & Germany had been to war- rivarly between Koch & Pasteur
  • GOVERNMENT- Gave him a full time job & support team to allow his research

OBSTACLES FACED

  • People had previosly believe microorganisms were created by spontaneous generation- this had to be proved wrong

 

 

 

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Robert Koch

SHORT TERM IMPACT

  • Identified germs which caused tuberculosis & cholera- killer dieases

LONG TERM IMPACT

  • Provided a way for others to find cures for killer diseases- saving thousands of lives
  • Paved the way for discovery of new cures in 20th century
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Louis Pasteur

WHEN? 19th Century

WHO? French Scientist

BEFORE- Early 1800's- popular belief for cause of disease was bad air

WHAT HE DID- Developed the 'Germ Theory'- germs in air led to decomposition & developed vaccinations for chicken cholera, anthrax & rabies

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Louis Pasteur

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • SCIENCE- Powerful microscopes- study behaviour of bacteria
  • WAR- French & German had fought- rivarly for Pasteur & Koch
  • GOVERNMENT- The French Government support P to outdo the Germans

OBSTACLES FACED

  • Pasteur was a scientist, not a doctor- couldn't test on humans
  • People believed in spontaneous generation- had to be proved wrong
  • Pastuer was critised in being sloppy in his methods- used public demonstrations to show how it worked
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Louis Pasteur

SHORT TERM IMPACT

  • Discovered cures for chicken cholera, anthrax & rabies
  • Showed how diseases could be cured with vaccinations

LONG TERM IMPACT

  • Germ Theory explains how disease spread- could be cured
  • Influenced the work of Koch, Lister & others
  • Proved disease was linked to poor living conditions- meant the government had to take action
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Elizabeth Garret Anderson & Elizabeth Blackwell

WHEN? 19th Century

WHO? Female Doctors

BEFORE- Not since Roman times had female doctors been allowed

WHAT THEY DID- Elizabeth Blackwell was the first female doctors in America & Elizabeth Garret Anderson was the first to qualify in England

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Elizabeth Garret Anderson & Elizabeth Blackwell

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • INDIVIDUAL GENIUS- Neither would give up on their quest to becoming doctors
  • ATTITUDES- Nightingale proved woman could do a good job, atitudes relaxed

OBSTACLES FACED

  • Universities barred both women from sitting entrance exams
  • Some technologies such as forceps were witheld from them because of their gender
  • Sexism- men didn't like the idea of female doctors
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Elizabeth Garret Anderson & Elizabeth Blackwell

SHORT TERM IMPACT

  • Both changed attitudes towards women & showed female doctors could be equal to male doctors

LONG TERM IMPACT

  • Helped in fight against sexism
  • More females involved in medicine
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Florence Nightingale

WHEN? 19th Century

WHO? The Lady with the Lamp

BEFORE- Nurses were regarded as little more than domestic servants- reputation for being drunk & lazy- it was not a profession respected women went into

WHAT SHE DID- During the Crimean War- led a group of nurses to imporve standards. Imprved conditions- way patients were treated & standard of care. After the war she wrote a book on training nurses & helped design hospitals

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Florence Nightingale

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • GOVERNMENT- Sent by British Government to improve standards in army hospitals
  • WAR- Worked in Crimean war
  • RELIGION- Believed God had called her to be a nurse

OBSTACLES FACED

  • She was female- society thought a womans place was in the home
  • From a wealthy background- parents didn't approve
  • Army didn't like being told what to do by a woman
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Florence Nightingale

SHORT TERM IMPACT

  • Brought death rate down & improved standards in hospitals
  • Helped desgin hospitals

LONG TERM IMPACT

  • Changed the way nurses were thought of- made it a respectable profession
  • Hospitals became healthier places
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Dr John Snow

WHEN? 19th Century

WHO? London Doctor

WHAT HE DID- Establshed the link between Chloera & infected water & worked out safe doses of anaesthetic

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Dr John Snow

FACTORS IN SUCESS

  • SUPPORT- Treated Queen Victoria with choloform- therefore respected doctor
  • INDIVIDUAL GENIUS- idea of plotting outbreaks on a map- identify patter & help study epidemics

OBSTACLES FACED

  • Couldn't prove why the illness spread
  • Generally didn't lead to better water
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Ignaz Semmelweiss

WHEN? 19th Century

WHO? Hungarian hospital director

WHAT HE DID- Worked out that hand washing reduced risk of infection

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Ignaz Semmelweiss

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • Tested his theory across two wards & lectured findings
  • Published a book in 1861

OBSTACLES FACED

  • He was ignored- doctors didn't want to accep they caused death & claimed hand washing took up too much time
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Robert Liston

WHEN? 19th Century

WHO? Renowned London Surgeon

WHAT HE DID- First European doctor to use anasthetic during an operation

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Robert Liston

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • Prior development of anaesthetic in USA & publishing of results mean that knowledged was passed between doctors
  • Notoriety from his earlier success as a speed surgeon at a large hospital

OBSTACLES FACED

  • Mistook an aneurism for abcess- death
  • Removed testicles by accident
  • 300% mortality rate in one operation

 

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Edwin Chadwick

WHEN? 19th Century

WHO? Public Health report writer

WHAT HE DID- Reported on effects of poverty & poor living conditions on health. Recommened Public Health Reform (1847)- led to Public Health act 1948

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Edwin Chadwick

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • GOVERNMENT- Gave Chadwick the job of investigating sanitation & eventually introduced his recommendations

OBSTACLES FACED

  • 1848 Act was mainly voluntary & many towns ignored it
  • Some changes were reversed later
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Joesph Bazalgette

WHEN? 19th Century

WHO? Engineer

WHAT HE DID- Designed & supervised a new sewage system

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Joesph Bazalgette

FACTORS IN SUCCESS

  • GOVERNMENT- They appointed & supported the development after Cholera outbreak & Great stink
  • TECHNOLOGY- Sewage processing plants

OBSTACLES FACED

  • Dealing with sewage made him ill- did get better
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