1.2) Germany: Treaty of Versailles.

Armistice and Treaty of Versailles:

  • Nov 11th 1918, Armistice signed.
  • Allies, UK's George, FRA's Clameneau, ITA's Vittorio and US' Wilson.
  • Peace talks until treaty could be sorted.
  • TofV was diktat, Germans had no say.
  • Showed on May 7th with 7 day deadline to accept.
  • Treaty involved Territorial loss, Disarmement, War-guilt, Demilitarisation and Reparations.
  • Nationalists were disgusted.
  • Ebert said signing it was patriotic.
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Terms of the Treaty of Versailles:

    • 13% colonies lost.
    • Alsace-Lorriane and Polish Corridor given to France and Poland.
    • 75%, 65% and 30% lost in Zinc, Iron and Coal.
    • LofN given Coal rich Saarland.
    • Weapon and forts lost in Rhineland.
    • Army limited to 100,000 men, 15,000 Navy and 6 Battleships.
    • Rhineland was a place of war production. Allies took it over so they comply with terms of the treaty.
    • Had to take all the blame for War.
    • Paid £6.6b reparations.
    • Couldn't join LofN.
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German reaction to the Treaty:

  • Angry and shocked.
  • Thought they won the war, lied to via propaganda.
  • Hated Kaiser's removal.
  • Unfair, W's 14 points self-determination gave rights for countries to govern themselves. Independent from large empires. But, not allowed for Germany.


  • Germans were living in non-German places, e.g. Poland.
  • War-guilt was humiliation.
  • Disarmement was discrimination.
  • Nationalists hated French taking Saarland.


  • Returning Alsace-Lorraine,
  • creation of Poland,
  • Giving over assets,
  • Getting disarmed.
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Germans Overreacted, Wiemar failed again.

  • TofV could have been worse.
  • French wanted Germany to suffer more.
  • Saarland would be annexed and Rhineland made independent.
  • If Germans won they would've colonized allies and imposed heavier reparations.
  • German could've expected harshness.


  • Moderate supporters were lost.
  • Seens as a failure again.
  • Nationalists and Friekorps had enough.
  • Everyone linked to Treaties were now November criminals.
  • Germans felt stabbed in the back.
  • Overall even allies knew they were to harsh. Lloyd-George felt Germany were too weak, may be threatened by Bolshevik and communists spread from Russia.
  • Clamencau felt Treaty was too nice,
  • Wilson though UK and France enriched themselves.
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