1.1.3 how multi cellular organisms are specialised for their functions


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  • Created by: Maryan
  • Created on: 31-12-11 19:39


  • Bioconcave in shape so a larger surface area for gas exchange.
  • No nucleus so more haemoglobin in blood

Epithelial cell

  • Some have cillia to waft dirt and dust out the body.
  • Others have microvili, many folds at the membrane for larger surface area

Sperm cell

  • Flagellum to enable movement of sperm
  • Lots of mitochondria to give energy to the sperm cell so it can swim alot
  • The acrosome has digestive enzymes so it can penetrate the egg cell

Palisade cells:

  • Contains many chloroplasts for maximum absorbtion of sunlight
  • Has thin cell walls for rapid co2 intake

Root hair cells:

  • Large surface area for maximum absorption of water and minerals.
  • Has some mitochondria for active transport
  • Thin permeable cell walls for entry of water and ions

Guard cells:

  • Thin outerwall and thicker inner wall forces the guard cell to bend outwards which opens the stomata
  • During light they take up water and become turgid


  • Has sieve plates so sap can move easily.


  • Transports water around the plant
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