1.1 research methods and techniques

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Experiment (1.1 Reserch Methods and Techniques)

1. Laboratory experiment
Define: a highly controlled experiment
Strength: control extraneous variables so can be sure IV affects DV
Weakness: not in normal conditions so participants act differently

2. Field experiment
Define: the participants are not normally aware they're taking part in an experiment as it is in there everyday conditions
Strength: high ecological validity as there behaviour is true to real life
Weakness: difficult to control variables as other things may impact DV

3. Quasi experiment
Define: an experiment where the IV isn't changed by the researched, it happens naturally, makes use of natural differences or circumstances e.g. Epilepsy
Strength: in real life conditions so existence of experiment can be hidden from them
Weakness: difficult to know whether IV is the only thing affecting DV

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Observation (1.1 Reserch Methods and Techniques)

Structured=an observer records a specific range of behaviours in pre-decided and pre-defined categories

Unstructured=an observer records a non-specified, wide range of behaviours including any that seem relevant

Naturalistic=where behaviours seen in the participants normal environment are recorded without interference from the researchers in either the social or physical environment

Controlled=where behaviours seen are recorded by the researchers in situations in which there has been some manipulation by the researchers, e.g. In either participants normal environment or in artificial situations such as a lab

Participant=where the partcipants behaviour is recorded by the observer who also becomes part of the setting, e.g. observer is another shopper in a shop

Non-partcipant=where the observer is not engaging with them in the setting

Overt=where the partcipants know they are being watched

Covert=partcipants are unaware they are being watched

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Self report (1.1 Reserch Methods and Techniques)

1. Questionnaire=is a self report method that uses written questions
Strengths-find opinions, cheap, easy, analyse results quick, can be done by anyone
Weakness-lacks validity, poor response rate, often need to offer incentive, could lie

2. Interviews=is a self report method in which participants reply verbally to questions asked by an interviewer
Structured interview=closed questions in a fixed order, scripted, everyone treated same
Strengths-easy to replicate, fairly quick to conduct
Weakness-not flexible, must follow schedule
Semi-structured interview=uses a fixed list of open and closed questions although the interviewee can ask more questions if required
Unstructured interview=begins with a standard question but after that responses depend on respondents answeres, may be a list of topics to cover
Strengths-more flexible, qualitative data, in depth
Weakness-time consuming, employing and training is expensive

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Correlation (1.1 Reserch Methods and Techniques)

Correlation=relationship between two measured variables

Correlation analysis=a technique used to investigate a link between two measured variables

Obtaining data for correlation analysis-in order to look for a correlation between two variables, each must exist over a range and it must be possible to measure them numerically, I.e. the date must be quantitative. This means the partcipants scores cannot just be named categories. A range of techniques can be used in correlation analyse to collect appropriate date, e.g. self reports through rating scales.

Positive correlation=a relationship between two variables such that an increase in one accompanies an increase in the other

Negative correlation=a relationship between two variables such that an increase in one accompanies a decrease in the other

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