- Created by: Pinksoda
- Created on: 03-05-19 11:07
- A sole king of the 28th Dynasty called Amyrtaeus - Manetho.
- He is known only from demotic and Greek language sources, and not attested in the hieroglyphic record.
- His name in demotic (form of Egyptian) occurs as Amenirdis.
- He asserted his authority as far south as Aswan on the southern border of Egypt - control of most of Egypt.
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- Nefaarud, Baenre (Nepherites I - Greek version) (399-393 BCE)
- Temple building under Nepherites I = 2 limestone reliefs from Tell Timai - Graeco-Roman site (another name for Mendes?), a granite doorway from Mendes, and a way chapel for the bark of Amun & other buildings at Karnak.
- Maintained cult of the Apis bull (Memphis), recorded on a Serapeum Stela.
- Sacred bull mummified in granite sarcophagai. Dated with Pharaoh name
- A usuruper and also the son of Nefaarud struggled for power but were defeated by a man called Hakor.
- Hakor, Khenemmaatre (Achoris - Greek) (392-380 BCE)
- Hakor disregarded years of struggle, dated his reign from death of Nefaarud
- Large amount of building took place under Hakor primarlily in South:
- Blocks found at Letopoli, Naoes from Herakelopolis, Chapel at Karnak
- Blocks from el-Tod Building at el-Kab, Temple at Elephantine
- Nepherites II, son of Hakor had few months rule
- Killed by Nakhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
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30th Dynasty 1
- New capital city at Sebennytos in the central Nile Delta
- Begun under Nectanebo I - taken on at peaceful time
- Enlargement of the sanctuary of Isis at Philae Inscription found at Elephantine
- Kiosk at Elkab
- Hathor temple of Denderah enlarged Extensive building activity at Thebes
- Building work at the Osiris temple at Abydos New temple building at Hermopolis Magna Restoration at building at Tell el-Balamun Khonsu-Neferhotep I temple at Tanis Temple in the area of Qantir
- Enlargement of temple at Hibis (el-Kharga)
- Temple building for Sopdu at Saft el-Henna
- Relief block found at Munagat el-Kuba
- Relief blocks and naos at Mendes
- Building work at the Neit temple at Sais
- Building at Thoth temple at Hermopolis Parva Three granite slabs found at Athribis
- A temple building at Naukratis
- Several temples at Memphis at Saqqara
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Djedhor (Teos) (362-360 BCE)
- Djedhor was the son of Nakhtnebef (Nectanebo I).
- He immediately went after the Persians in an attempt to regain Syria.
- He used Greek mercenaries in his army, and raised taxes in order to fund them which led to dislike of Teos at home in Egypt.
- While Teos was away on campaign his son Tjahpimu installed his son (the grandson of Teos), Nakhthorheb (Nectenebo II) as king.
- Teos fled to Susa after a very short two year reign.
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Nakhthorheb (Nectanebo II)
- By 350 the Persian ruler Artaxerxes III had re-established the Persian empire, and went to attack Egypt, but his campaign failed.
- In 343 BCE Artaxerxes III attacked Egypt again, capturing the fortress of Pelusium, along with the other Delta cities and Memphis.
- Nectanebo II fled to Nubia.
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The Second Persian Period (31st Dynasty)
- As repercussions to the Egyptians the Persians slaughtered the sacred animals (Apis, Buchis, and Mnevis).
- Temples were raided and many temples destroyed They raised taxes considerably.
- A Satrap was placed instead of a King.
- A rebel king Khababash (ca. 338/7-36/35) also ruled during this period.
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Alexander the Great in Egypt 1
- Defeats Persians at Issus
- Pelusium Tell Farama
- Heads West to Egypt - expects large Persian force but no opposition - Persian forces had been emptied to go to Issus
- Satrap of Egypt was called Mazakes
- Alexander at Heliopolis -Offers to God Ra
- Alexander offered to the bull god Apis at Memphis
- King often seeing running alongside bull at Sed festival (showing he can rule)
- Identifiers - White bit of fur - tail split into two, scarab under tongue
- Alexander was crowned at the administrative capital of Memphis.
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Alexander the Great in Egypt 2
- Created out of need for governing country & economic power - connections with Greek city states
- Deinokrates of Rhodes (Vitruvius, II praef. 4). - Architect
- 25th Tybi (7th April 331 BCE) (Ps. Kallisthenes I. 32.7)
- Became Egypt’s new commercial and cultural hub
- Wheat story for Alexandria - would feed many
- Alexander and his retinue went to Siwa to ask about his divine ancestry.
- Form of Theban Amun - Queen Hatshepsut kneeling before the god Amun (from a New Kingdom Obelisk of Hatshepsut)
- Divine Nature
- Title ‘Son of Re’ - legitimising rule - Bark Shirine at Luxor Temple
- Other temple activity at: Athribis, Karnak and Hermopolis Magna
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Reorganisation of Egyptian Administration
- Two governors: one for upper Egypt and one for lower Egypt.
- Doloaspis (possibly already a member of the Persian administration)
- Peteisis an Egyptian.
- The military: two army leaders (strategoi). Balakros and Peukestas.
- Kleomenes of Naukratis
- Quickly promoted to Satrap of Egypt.
- Controlled the administration of the eastern border area of Arabia
- Overall control of Egypt’s finances
- Entrusted with the construction of Alexandria
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Death of Alexander - 10th June 323BCE (Babylon)
- Afterdeath of Alexander the empire became fragmented between his generals.
- 3 main individuals took over the running of the government, Antipatros, Perdikkas and Krateros, while the remaining satrapies were divided out between the highest ranking members of Alexander's retinue.
- Phillip Arrhidaios, half brother of Alexander, proclaimed king by infantry with the unborn son of Roxane, Alexander's wife (if the child was to be born male).
- In the division of the satrapies the general Ptolemy was given Egypt in 323 BCE, and the acting satrap Kleomenes became his subordinate.
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Temples of Alexander's Successors
- Temples of Phillip Arrhidaeus (Phillipus III) (323 – 316 BCE)
- Few monuments of Phillupus III survive in Egypt
- Tukh el Qaramus in the Delta,
- Nub Taha in the southern Delta,
- Sebennytos (central delta), and Karnak
- Phillip III Arrhidaeus (was assassinated after a reign of around six years, and he never visited Egypt).
- Temples of Alexander IV (316-304 BCE).
- Granite doorway of Alexander IV at Elephantine (Arnold, 1999: fig . 94)
- Detail of doorway of Alexander IV at Elephantine (Arnold, 1999: fig. 95)
- Ptolemy was in control - not token Kings
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The Transference of the Capital to Alexandria
- Shown in The Satrap Stela of Ptolemy I
- Alexander's funeral cortege departed from Babylon 2 years after death on way to Aegea
- Ptolemy intercepts the cortege at Damascus - was not stopped
- The Soma/Sema of Alexander
- Ptolemy interred the body in a purpose built mausoleum at Alexandria called the Soma (body) or Sema (tomb), in the Brucheum district of the city.
- Ptolemy IV (221-204 BCE) built a sema, interred his mother and 3 previous Ptolemaic kings (alongside Alexander), this was part of the palace complex.
- Became the burial place from then on for all the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt.
- Alexander always associated with Ptolemaic dynasty
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Ptolemy I Soter as King (306/04 – 283/2 BCE)
- Depictions of the King
- Basalt bust of Ptolemy I (EA 1641)
- Ptolemy I Soter, portrait on a silver tetradrachm
- Ptolemy I at Sharuna - female
- Constructions in Alexandria
- The Museum (Mouseion) [The Sanctuary of the Muses].
- Unknown when Ptolemy began work on the Mouseion
- Mouseion/Library located in spacious gardens, walled off from gen. population
- Close to royal palace, tomb of Alexander & Macedonian/Greek quarter of city.
- The Library of Alexandria
- Repository of ancient knowledge
- Centre for studying literature/literary criticism
- The Fire of the Library under Julius Caesar (48 BCE)
- The Pharos Lighthouse
- Image of Zeus Sotare
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