10 - Path to Early Ptolemaic Period

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  • Created on: 03-05-19 11:07

28th Dynasty

  • A sole king of the 28th Dynasty called Amyrtaeus - Manetho.
  • He is known only from demotic and Greek language sources, and not attested in the hieroglyphic record. 
  • His name in demotic (form of Egyptian) occurs as Amenirdis.
  •  He asserted his authority as far south as Aswan on the southern border of Egypt - control of most of Egypt.
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29th Dynasty

  • Nefaarud, Baenre (Nepherites I - Greek version)  (399-393 BCE) 
    • Temple building under Nepherites I = 2  limestone reliefs from Tell Timai - Graeco-Roman site (another name for Mendes?), a granite doorway from Mendes, and a way chapel for the bark of Amun & other buildings at Karnak. 
    • Maintained cult of the Apis bull (Memphis), recorded on a Serapeum Stela.
    • Sacred bull mummified in granite sarcophagai. Dated with Pharaoh name
    • A usuruper and also the son of Nefaarud struggled for power but were defeated by a man called Hakor.
  • Hakor, Khenemmaatre (Achoris - Greek) (392-380 BCE) 
    • Hakor disregarded years of struggle, dated his reign from death of Nefaarud
    • Large amount of building took place under Hakor primarlily in South:
    • Blocks found at Letopoli, Naoes from Herakelopolis, Chapel at Karnak
    • Blocks from el-Tod Building at el-Kab, Temple at Elephantine
    • Nepherites II, son of Hakor had few months rule
      • Killed by Nakhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
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30th Dynasty 1

  • New capital city at Sebennytos in the central Nile Delta
  • Begun under Nectanebo I - taken on at peaceful time
  • Enlargement of the sanctuary of Isis at Philae Inscription found at Elephantine
  • Kiosk at Elkab
  • Hathor temple of Denderah enlarged Extensive building activity at Thebes 
  • Building work at the Osiris temple at Abydos New temple building at Hermopolis Magna Restoration at building at Tell el-Balamun Khonsu-Neferhotep I temple at Tanis Temple in the area of Qantir 
  • Enlargement of temple at Hibis (el-Kharga)
  • Temple building for Sopdu at Saft el-Henna 
  • Relief block found at Munagat el-Kuba
  • Relief blocks and naos at Mendes
  • Building work at the Neit temple at Sais
  • Building at Thoth temple at Hermopolis Parva Three granite slabs found at Athribis 
  • A temple building at Naukratis
  • Several temples at Memphis at Saqqara 
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Djedhor (Teos) (362-360 BCE)

  • Djedhor was the son of Nakhtnebef (Nectanebo I).
  • He immediately went after the Persians in an attempt to regain Syria. 
  • He used Greek mercenaries in his army, and raised taxes in order to fund them which led to dislike of Teos at home in Egypt. 
  • While Teos was away on campaign his son Tjahpimu installed his son (the grandson of Teos), Nakhthorheb (Nectenebo II) as king. 
  • Teos fled to Susa after a very short two year reign. 
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Nakhthorheb (Nectanebo II)

  • By 350 the Persian ruler Artaxerxes III had re-established the Persian empire, and went to attack Egypt, but his campaign failed. 
  •  In 343 BCE Artaxerxes III attacked Egypt again, capturing the fortress of Pelusium, along with the other Delta cities and Memphis.
  •  Nectanebo II fled to Nubia.
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The Second Persian Period (31st Dynasty)

  • As repercussions to the Egyptians the Persians slaughtered the sacred animals (Apis, Buchis, and Mnevis). 
  • Temples were raided and many temples destroyed They raised taxes considerably.
  •  A Satrap was placed instead of a King.
  •  A rebel king Khababash (ca. 338/7-36/35) also ruled during this period.
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Alexander the Great in Egypt 1

  • Defeats Persians at Issus
  • Pelusium Tell Farama
    • Heads West to Egypt - expects large Persian force but no opposition - Persian forces had been emptied to go to Issus
  • Satrap of Egypt was called Mazakes
  • Alexander at Heliopolis -Offers to God Ra
  • Alexander offered to the bull god Apis at Memphis
  •  King often seeing running alongside bull at Sed festival (showing he can rule)
    •  Identifiers  - White bit of fur - tail split into two, scarab under tongue
  •  Alexander was crowned at the administrative capital of Memphis.
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Alexander the Great in Egypt 2

  • Alexandria
    • Created out of need for governing country & economic power - connections with Greek city states
    • Deinokrates of Rhodes (Vitruvius, II praef. 4). - Architect
    • 25th Tybi (7th April 331 BCE) (Ps. Kallisthenes I. 32.7) 
    • Became Egypt’s new commercial and cultural hub
    • Wheat story for Alexandria - would feed many 
  • Zeus-Ammon

    • Alexander and his retinue went to Siwa to ask about his divine ancestry. 
    •  Form of Theban Amun - Queen Hatshepsut kneeling before the god Amun (from a New Kingdom Obelisk of Hatshepsut) 
  • Divine Nature
    • Title ‘Son of Re’  - legitimising rule - Bark Shirine at Luxor Temple 
    • Other temple activity at: Athribis, Karnak and Hermopolis Magna 
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Reorganisation of Egyptian Administration

  • Two governors: one for upper Egypt and one for lower Egypt. 
  • Doloaspis (possibly already a member of the Persian administration) 
  • Peteisis an Egyptian. 
  • The military: two army leaders (strategoi). Balakros and Peukestas.
  • Kleomenes of Naukratis
    • Quickly promoted to Satrap of Egypt. 
    • Controlled the administration of the eastern border area of Arabia 
    • Overall control of Egypt’s finances 
    • Entrusted with the construction of Alexandria 
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Death of Alexander - 10th June 323BCE (Babylon)

  • Afterdeath of Alexander the empire became fragmented between his generals. 
  • 3 main individuals took over the running of the government, Antipatros, Perdikkas and Krateros, while the remaining satrapies were divided out between the highest ranking members of Alexander's retinue. 
  • Phillip Arrhidaios, half brother of Alexander, proclaimed king by infantry with the unborn son of Roxane, Alexander's wife (if the child was to be born male). 
  • In the division of the satrapies the general Ptolemy was given Egypt in 323 BCE, and the acting satrap Kleomenes became his subordinate. 
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Temples of Alexander's Successors

  • Temples of Phillip Arrhidaeus (Phillipus III) (323 – 316 BCE) 
    • Few monuments of Phillupus III survive in Egypt 
    • Tukh el Qaramus in the Delta,
    • Nub Taha in the southern Delta, 
    • Sebennytos (central delta), and Karnak 
    • Phillip III Arrhidaeus (was assassinated after a reign of around six years, and he never visited Egypt). 
  • Temples of Alexander IV (316-304 BCE). 
    • Granite doorway of Alexander IV at Elephantine (Arnold, 1999: fig . 94) 
    • Detail of doorway of Alexander IV at Elephantine (Arnold, 1999: fig. 95)
    • Ptolemy was in control - not token Kings
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The Transference of the Capital to Alexandria

  • Shown in The Satrap Stela of Ptolemy I 
  • Alexander's funeral cortege departed from Babylon 2 years after death on way to Aegea
  •  Ptolemy intercepts the cortege at Damascus - was not stopped
  •  The Soma/Sema of Alexander
    •  Ptolemy interred the body in a purpose built mausoleum at Alexandria called the Soma (body) or Sema (tomb), in the Brucheum district of the city.
    • Ptolemy IV (221-204 BCE) built a sema, interred his mother and 3 previous Ptolemaic kings (alongside Alexander), this was part of the palace complex.
    • Became the burial place from then on for all the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt.
    • Alexander always associated with Ptolemaic dynasty
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Ptolemy I Soter as King (306/04 – 283/2 BCE)

  • Depictions of the King 
  • Basalt bust of Ptolemy I (EA 1641) 
  • Ptolemy I Soter, portrait on a silver tetradrachm 
  • Ptolemy I at Sharuna - female
  • Constructions in Alexandria
  • The Museum (Mouseion) [The Sanctuary of the Muses].
    • Unknown when Ptolemy began work on the Mouseion
    • Mouseion/Library located in spacious gardens, walled off from gen. population
    • Close to royal palace, tomb of Alexander & Macedonian/Greek quarter of city.
  •  The Library of Alexandria
    • Repository of ancient knowledge
    • Centre for studying literature/literary criticism
  • The Fire of the Library under Julius Caesar (48 BCE)
  •  The Pharos Lighthouse
  •  Image of Zeus Sotare
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