1. class differences in achievement (external&internal)

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  • Created by: jkathana
  • Created on: 13-05-16 17:36

Cultural Deprivation theory

Language:Bernstein- restricte(w|c)and elaborated(m|c)speech codes
r=limited vocab,simple sentences/gestures,particularistic= doesnt spell them out|| e=wide vocab,complex sentences,universalistic= spells out meanings explicitly,doesnt assume listener shares them. (used in education= m|c advantage)
Parents' education: Fernstein- m|c parents normally more educated= advantaged
parenting style- (e)=constant discipline, high expectations,active learning/exploration
educational behaviours-(e)=more aware what helps progress(value of educational visits)
language-way parents communicates affecst child's cognitive development. 
use of income-(e)=spend to promote child's development(educational toys) BUT exaplains why some w|c with e. parents do better than m|c. 
Working-class subculture: Sugarman-4 educational barrier; immediate gratification, fatalism, collectivism, present-time orientation= low value placed on education
Hyman: dont believe they'll benefit= dont try. (similar to fatalism)
Douglas: also bc. w|c parents show less support (parents eve)
eval:(for Douglas)- long working hours NOT lack of interest/support.
Keddie: not culturally deprived of own culture-just different // internal factors/material deprivation 

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Material Deprivation theory/ Cultural capital theo

Housing:- overcrowding,homeless,temporary accomodation= no where quiet (homework/ revision), changes of schools.
Diet: illness,absences,lack of concentration= fall behind/ behavioural problems(sent out).
Financial cost of education: trips, computers, stigmatised/bullied lacking right uniform/fashion brand or items. 
Fear of Debt: Callender and Jackson- w|c debt averse, more cost than benefits of going uni/HE, recieved less financial support from family. 
eval:not all w|c children fail-supoortive parents=high motivation// ignores internal factors of schools

Cultural Capital theory: (links both cultural and material dep.) Bourdieu-
m|c posses cultural/economic capital= use this to an advantage for children= obtaining educational capital
- children get qualifications=gets them m|c jobs= more economic capital =reproducing advantages of m|c generation to generation 

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Labelling/ self-fulfilling prophecy/streaming/pupi

Labelling: Becker- definition attached to someone to make sense of them (bright/thick), ideal pupil m|c "bright" not w|c, key idea underline other process causing underachievement.

Self-fulfilling prophecy: comes true simply because prediction(label by teacher) was made. negative labels (mainly w|c)= fail, m|c succeed because labelled as "bright. 

Streaming: extreme institutionalised form of labelling. Lacey-'differentiation'(educating them differently based on labels= self-fulfillng prophecy.
Douglas: IQs- 'less able'(lower streasm) declined over time, top stream IQ increased.
Denied access to same curriculum=higher level exams
=widens acheivement gap between classes.

Pupil Subcultures: Lacey-response to labelling= pro-school/ anto-school subcultures.
pro-school(higher streams)= accept schools values/enjoy/contine education
anti-school(lower streams)=reject schools values/invert them
Lacey:(anti)- school deprives them of status("failures")= create own staturs hierarchy by rejectng values/rules/gain status through peers= often leads to a SFP

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Class identities&achievement// w|c identity&educat

Archer: habitus- social class' habitual ways of thinking,being,acting=expectations for what is normal for "people like us".
-m|c habitus defines itselfe superior=impose on education system=schools hold m|c values. Symbolic capital and violence-  school devalues w|c pupils habtus=commits symbolic violence and denies them symbolic capital through own habitus. 
'Nike' identities- SV leads to creating alternative class identities, gain SC from peers(branded goods e.g. Nike) BUT conflicts with m|c habitus of schools. 
'Losing yourself'- succeeding at schools is seen as being inauthentic ('Nike' identities authentic to w|c)

W|c identity&educational success: Ingram- 'fitting-in' problem for w|c grammar school boys
-tensions between neighbourgoods habitus vs. m|c school= judged worthless at school ('street clothes') or by community(not wearing them).
Evans: self exclusion from succes-even successful w|c girls faced hidden barriers= believe identity wouldnt 'fit in' with habitus elite uni's= studied at home/close to families(strong attachment-part of w|c feminine habitus)

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