Yugoslavia and the Balkans - 1878-2006

Powerpoint on the history of Yugoslavia and the Balkans, from the creation the the invasion by the Ottoman Turks, all the way to the Bosnian Wars of the 1990s and the independence of the Balkan states following the collapse of Yugoslavia, for the Cold War in Europe unit with OCR.

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The Balkans, pre-20 Century
· The Ottoman Turks invaded the
region at the end of the 14th Century
and ruled for some 500 years.
· The northern Austro-Hungarian Empire
grew stronger and loosened the grip of
the Turks at the end of the 17th
Century.
· A major redefinition was enacted by
the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.
· Serbia, Montenegro and Romania
became independent, and the
principality of Bulgaria was created.
Slovenia, Croatia stayed under the rule
of Austria-Hungary which also took
control of Bosnia-Herzegovina.…read more

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Pre-1914
· The Ottoman Empire had started to crumble
opening up opportunities for a wave of
nationalism.
· War erupted in 1912 when Montenegrin troops
moved across into the Ottoman Empire.
· The Balkan allies (Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece)
drove the Turks out of Albania, Macedonia and
Kosovo.
· Serbia later turned against Bulgaria and
occupied most of Kosovo and Macedonia.
· Austro-Hungary sent the emperor's heir,
Archduke Franz Ferdinand to stop the violence
­ he attempted to promote the idea of South
Slavs playing a greater role in the empire
against Serbian expansion.
· He was assassinated in Sarajevo by Gavrilo
Princip, a Serb nationalist, which triggered the
outbreak of the First World War.…read more

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Interwar Years
· Following the defeat of Austro-Hungary in
1918, the Treaty of Versailles stated that
there should be a defined new pattern of
state boundaries in the Balkans.
· The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and
Slovenes was founded ­ in 1929 King
Alexander I changed the name of the state
to Yugoslavia (land of the South Slavs)
· The Serbs still dominated the
government, which resulted in an anti-
Serb movement following the authoritarian
monarchy alongside Serb dominance;
Croats in particular demanded
independence from Yugoslavia.
· Resentment led to the violent death of
King Alexander I in 1934.…read more

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Pre-World War II
· German troops were welcomed by southern
Croatian fascists, allowing Hitler to reward
Croats (and Bosnians) with a nominally
independent puppet state ­ Croatia.
· Widespread atrocities were committed on
either side:
· Jews, Serbs, Gypsies and anti-Fascists
were killed in concentration camps in
Croatia.
· Serbia came under the control of German
troops as Italians occupied Montenegro.
· Josep Broz Tito ­ a communist ­ with
Dragoljub Mihailovic lead rival partisans
against German troops ­ when not fighting
one another.
· Kosovo was occupied by Albanian and
Italian troops.
· Bulgarians invaded Macedonia.…read more

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