Year 11 Revision of Additional Biology (B2) QUESTIONS and ANSWERS

Year 11 Revision of Additional Biology (B2)  QUESTIONS and ANSWERS

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Year 11 Revision of Additional Biology (B2)
1. What is the function of:
A nucleus
The cytoplasm
A cell membrane
2. What do plant cells have in addition to the above structures? What are their functions?
3. Examples of specialised cells?
4. Why are there specialised cells?
5. How is a fat cell adapted to its function?
6. How is a sperm cell adapted to its function?
7. Define diffusion
8. Factors that speed up diffusion rate
9. Finish the equation
Net movement of particles into an area of lower concentration = ________________________ take away
particles moving out
10. Particles that can diffuse?
11. Define osmosis
12. How does oxygen get from your lungs into red blood cells in the blood stream?
13. How does glucose get from your gut into the blood stream?
14. How are cells in the gut adapted to carry out diffusion more rapidly?
15. Word equation for photosynthesis?
16. What absorbs the light energy?
17. What is this energy used for?
18. What is the waste gas?
19. Limiting factors?
20. What happens to the glucose?
21. Starch is insoluble. Why does this fact make it a suitable form for storage of carbohydrate?
22. What is nitrate used for by plants?
23. What is magnesium used for by plants?
24. How does a plant obtain these mineral salts?
B2 Additional Biology Revision Questions 1

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Nitrate ion deficiency causes?
26. Magnesium ion deficiency causes?
27. How are fast rates of photosynthesis produced in commercial greenhouses?
28. Where does the energy come from for most communities of living organisms?
29. What is a pyramid of biomass?
30. How does the biomass change at each level moving along a food chain?
31. What does this mean for the energy available at each trophic level?
32. What implication does this have for efficient food production?
33.…read more

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List the reasons for respiration
54. Enzymes are needed inside living cells to catalyse the reactions of protein synthesis. What building blocks ar
being linked together to form proteins?
55. What sort of enzymes catalyse reactions outside body cells?
55. Definition of digestion?
56. Substrate and breakdown products of amylase?
57. Substrate and breakdown products of protease?
58. Substrate and breakdown products of lipids?
59. Where is amylase produced and where does it work?
60. Where is protease produced and where does it work?
61.…read more

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Where is body temperature monitored?
81. If core body temperature is too high, what do the blood vessels supplying the skin capillaries do?
82. Why?
83. What happens at the sweat gland?
84. What word describes the blood vessels supplying skin capillaries when the core body temperature is too low?
85. Why?
86. What may happen to muscles when the body is too cold?
87. What organ monitors blood glucose levels?
88. What is the hormone that reduces blood glucose levels?
98.…read more

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How does a cell in the testes divide to produce sperm?
112 In both mitosis & meiosis what happens to the chromosomes first?
113 One cell in the ovaries or testes divides to produce how many gametes?
114 What is fertilisation?
115 What is a stem cell?
116 How may stem cells be used in paralysis?
117 What cell division takes place in asexual reproduction?
118 How many pairs of chromosomes are there in humans?
.…read more

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Huntington's disease is caused by a dominant allele. What does this mean for children of a person who has
. this allele?
130 Cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive allele. If a child has cystic fibrosis, what are the genotypes of its
. parents?
131 What did Mendel propose & why was his discovery only recognised after his death?
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Year 11 Revision of Additional Biology (B2) ANSWERS
1. Controls the activities of the cell
Where most chemical reactions take place
Controls the passage of substances in & out of the cell
Where most energy is released in aerobic respiration
Where protein synthesis occurs
2. Cell wall: strengthens cell
Often have:
Chloroplasts: absorb light energy to make food
Permanent vacuole filled with cell sap
3. e.g. Fat cells, cone cells, root hair cells, sperm cells, neurones, RBCs
4. To carry out specific functions
5.…read more

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Low temperature
Shortage of carbon dioxide
Shortage of light
20. Converted to starch
Used in respiration
21. Doesn't affect osmosis
22. To make amino acids which are then used to build up proteins
23. To make chlorophyll
24. Absorbed through the roots
25. Stunted growth
26. Yellow leaves
27. Temperature, light, carbon dioxide levels are controlled
Nutritionally balanced soil used
Computer systems used to control temperature, light, carbon dioxide and also mineral content of
28. The Sun
29.…read more

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As carbon dioxide in respiration (of plants, animals, decomposers) & combustion (burning)
42. Biological catalysts
43. Lowers the activation energy
44. Proteins
45. Chains of amino acid
46. Folded into specific shape: there is a small part called the active site into which the substrate fits
47. High temperatures (above optimum temperature)
pH values above and below optimum temperature
48. Denatured
49. Enzymesubstrate complex
49. Respiration, photosynthesis, protein synthesis
50. Breakdown of glucose to release energy
51.…read more

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Creates an acidic pH for the stomach protease (pepsin) to work effectively
Kills harmful microorganisms
63. Emulsifies fats (breaks down large fat droplets to smaller fat droplets), creating a larger surface area
for lipase to work on
64. Liver
65. Gall bladder
66. Neutralises the acidity from the stomach, creating an alkaline pH for enzymes in the small intestine to
work effectively
67. Catalyse reactions at relatively low temperatures (saves energy costs) & low pressures
68.…read more


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