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Year 10 Summer Revision Sheet 2012

This year you have covered the following information:

1 The fundamental ideas in chemistry
Matter can be classified in terms of the three states of matter, solid, liquid and gas
A solid: Particles vibrate about fixed positions
Liquid: particles move randomly, but close…

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The relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons are:
Name of particle Mass
Proton 1
Neutron 1
Electron Very small

The relative atomic mass of an element (Ar) compares the mass of atoms of the element with the 12C isotope. It is
an average value for the isotopes…

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3 Bonding and structure
Compounds are substances in which atoms of
two or more elements are chemically combined.
Chemical bonding involves either transferring or
sharing electrons in the highest occupied energy
levels (shells) of atoms in order to achieve the
electron arrangement of a noble gas.
When atoms…

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Ionic compounds have regular structures (giant
ionic lattices) in which there are strong
electrostatic forces of attraction in all directions
between oppositely charged ions.
These compounds have high melting points and
high boiling points because of the large amounts
of energy needed to break the many strong

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This corresponds to a structure of positive ions
with electrons between the ions holding them
together by strong electrostatic attractions. The
bonding in metals is represented in the following

Metals conduct heat and electricity because of
the delocalised electrons in their structures.
Candidates should know that conduction depends…

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Increasing the surface area of solid reactants increases the frequency of collisions and so increases
the rate of reaction.
Catalysts change the rate of chemical reactions but are not used up during the reaction. Different
reactions need different catalysts.
Catalysts are important in increasing the rates of chemical…

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climate change, and solid particles cause global
Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are
burned, eg in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be
removed from the waste gases after combustion,
eg in power stations.

e) Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are
produced from plant material, and are…

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Alkenes can be used to make polymers such as poly(ethene) and poly(propene). In polymerisation
reactions, many small molecules (monomers) join together to form very large molecules (polymers).
For example:

The properties of polymers depend on what they are made from and the conditions under which they are

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Ethyl ethanoate is the ester produced from ethanol and ethanoic acid. Esters have the functional group
­COO­. The structures of esters can be represented in the following forms:

Esters are volatile compounds with distinctive smells and are used as flavourings and perfumes.

When an ionic…

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Candidates should be aware that large amounts
of energy are needed in the extraction process.
The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution
produces hydrogen and chlorine. Sodium
hydroxide solution is also produced. These are
important reagents for the chemical industry, eg
sodium hydroxide for the production of soap and


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