Year10 summer revision - Syllabus summary - Chemistry

this is from year 10 at my school when we have end of year test:-)

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Year 10 Summer Revision Sheet 2012
This year you have covered the following information:
1 The fundamental ideas in chemistry
Matter can be classified in terms of the three states of matter, solid, liquid and gas
a)
A solid: Particles vibrate about fixed positions
Liquid: particles move randomly, but close together.
Gas: Particles move with a rapid random motion and are far apart.
Candidates should be able to interpret a cooling curve and they should be able to describe and explain their
interconversion in terms of how the particles are arranged and their movement.
Candidates should understand the energy changes that accompany changes of state.
Evidence for the existence of particles can be obtained from simple experiments.
b)
Candidates should be familiar with simple diffusion experiments such as Br2 / air, NH3 / HCl,
KMnO4 / water.
All substances are made of atoms. A substance that is made of only one sort of atom is called an element.
a)
There are about 100 different elements. Elements are shown in the periodic table. The groups contain elements
with similar properties.
Atoms of each element are represented by a chemical symbol, eg O represents an atom of oxygen, Na
b)
represents an atom of sodium.
Atoms have a small central nucleus, which is made up of protons and neutrons, and around which there are
c)
electrons.
The relative electrical charges are as shown:
d)
Name of particle Charge
Proton +1
Neutron 0
Electron ­1
In an atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. Atoms have no overall
e)
electrical charge.
The number of protons in an atom of an element is its atomic number. The sum of the protons and neutrons in an
f)
atom is its mass number.
All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons. Atoms of different elements have different
g)
numbers of protons.
Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons these atoms are called isotopes of that
h)
element.
Atoms can be represented as shown in this example:
i)
(Mass number) 23
Na
(Atomic number) 11
Electrons occupy particular energy levels. Each electron in an atom is at a particular energy level (in a particular
j)
shell). The electrons in an atom occupy the lowest available energy levels (innermost available shells).
Candidates should be able to represent the electronic structure of the first twenty elements of the periodic table in
the following forms:
sodium
2,8,1

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The relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons are:
k)
Name of particle Mass
Proton 1
Neutron 1
Electron Very small
The relative atomic mass of an element (Ar) compares the mass of atoms of the element with the 12C isotope. It is
l)
an average value for the isotopes of the element
3 Air and water
Elements can burn in air to form oxides, which
c)
can be classified as acidic, basic and amphoteric.…read more

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Bonding and structure
Compounds are substances in which atoms of
a)
two or more elements are chemically combined.
Chemical bonding involves either transferring or
b)
sharing electrons in the highest occupied energy
levels (shells) of atoms in order to achieve the
electron arrangement of a noble gas.
When atoms form chemical bonds by transferring
c)
electrons, they form ions. Atoms that lose
electrons become positively charged ions. Atoms
that gain electrons become negatively charged
ions.…read more

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Ionic compounds have regular structures (giant
a)
ionic lattices) in which there are strong
electrostatic forces of attraction in all directions
between oppositely charged ions.
These compounds have high melting points and
high boiling points because of the large amounts
of energy needed to break the many strong
bonds.
When melted or dissolved in water, ionic
b)
compounds conduct electricity because the ions
are free to move.…read more

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Increasing the surface area of solid reactants increases the frequency of collisions and so increases
f)
the rate of reaction.
Catalysts change the rate of chemical reactions but are not used up during the reaction. Different
g)
reactions need different catalysts.
Catalysts are important in increasing the rates of chemical reactions used in industrial processes to
h)
reduce costs.
Organic Chemistry
Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of
a)
compounds.…read more

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Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are
d)
burned, eg in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be
removed from the waste gases after combustion,
eg in power stations.
e) Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are
produced from plant material, and are possible
alternatives to hydrocarbon fuels.
Candidates should know and understand the
benefits and disadvantages of biofuels in terms of:
use of renewable resources
their impacts on land use
their carbon footprint.…read more

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Alkenes can be used to make polymers such as poly(ethene) and poly(propene). In polymerisation
a)
reactions, many small molecules (monomers) join together to form very large molecules (polymers).
For example:
The properties of polymers depend on what they are made from and the conditions under which they are
b)
made. For example, lowdensity (LD) and highdensity (HD) poly(ethene) are produced using different
catalysts and reaction conditions.
Thermosoftening polymers consist of individual, tangled polymer chains with weak intermolecular forces
c)
between the chains.…read more

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Ethyl ethanoate is the ester produced from ethanol and ethanoic acid. Esters have the functional group
a)
­COO­. The structures of esters can be represented in the following forms:
CH3COOCH2CH3 or
Esters are volatile compounds with distinctive smells and are used as flavourings and perfumes.
b)
Electrolysis
When an ionic substance is melted or dissolved
a)
in water, the ions are free to move about within
the liquid or solution.…read more

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Candidates should be aware that large amounts
of energy are needed in the extraction process.
The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution
j)
produces hydrogen and chlorine. Sodium
hydroxide solution is also produced. These are
important reagents for the chemical industry, eg
sodium hydroxide for the production of soap and
chlorine for the production of bleach and plastics.
Analysis of mixtures
A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together.…read more

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