What they are used for

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In late 1895, a German physicist called W. C. Roentgen was working with a
cathode ray tube in his laboratory. In his discovery Roentgen found that the X-ray
would pass through the tissue of humans leaving the bones and metals visible.
One of Roentgen's first experiments late in 1895 was a film of his wife Bertha's
hand with a ring on her finger (shown below on right). The news of Roentgen's
discovery spread quickly throughout the world. Scientists everywhere could
duplicate his experiment because the cathode tube was very well known during
this period. In early 1896, X-rays were being utilized clinically in the United States
for such things as bone fractures and gun shot wounds.
X-rays are used for
medical diagnostic
procedures and also for research purposes. They work by accelerating electrons
with a high voltage and allowing them to collide with a metal target; these x-rays
are commonly called brehmsstrahlung or "braking radiation". If the bombarding
electrons have sufficient energy, they can knock an electron out of an inner shell
of the target metal atoms. Then electrons from higher states drop down to fill the
vacancy, emitting x-ray photons with precise energies determined by the
electron energy levels. These x-rays are called characteristic x-rays.

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How does it work?
X-rays were found to be able to penetrate through materials of light atoms like
flesh. The heavier atoms like metal absorb them. A beam of high energy
electrons crashes into a metal target and x-rays are produced. A filter near the
x-ray source blocks the low energy rays so only the high energy rays pass through
a patient toward a sheet of film.…read more

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Anode- is an electrode through which electric current flows into a polarized
electrical device.
Cathode- is an electrode through which electric current flows out of a polarized
electrical device.
Diode- In electronics, a diode is a component that restricts the direction of
movement of charge carriers. Basically, it allows an electric current to flow in one
direction, but blocks it in the opposite direction. Thus, the diode can be thought
of as an electronic version of a check valve.…read more


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