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Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
Allies: United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire
The Great War - between 1914-1918, changed many aspects of British literature.
Many of the writers of the time felt the need to speak out against the flaws they saw in
society. Their poetry became an act of dissidence in a terrible time in our world's history.…read more

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On 20 October 1914 (the first battle of Ypres) Both Germans and British suffered many loses.
By the end of the year most of northern France and Belgium was occupied by the Germans.
1915 - Second battle of Ypres
The British suffered a shortage of shells and heavy guns. The new armies needed time to
train, British secretary of state of war, lord Kitchener didn't want to use them too soon.…read more

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The battle of Arras
In April in the battle of Arras the British gained four miles of territory,but didn't break
through German lines.
1917 Passchendael.
The final battle of Ypres lasted from July to November 1917. 30,000 men died and Haig
described it as 'A good days work.' This battle became known as `Passchendaele' and was the
final battle of seven; these had raged over a period of 7 months. Passchendaele came to
epitomise the horrors of war.…read more

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lewis gun
· LMG (large machine gun)
· USA developed
· no German equivalent
· useful in trench warfare
Weaponslee Enfield rifle
· basic but excellent weapon
· 15 rounds of 303. bullets a minute
· penetrate helmet at 400 yards,
· basic combat rifle.
Grenades and shells
· Grenades hardly existed, so as trench warfare evolved so did grenades.
· Improvised grenades were made from jam jars and cans.…read more

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Airships were used for dropping bombs on towns and cities, such as London to
create terror, loss of morale and death.
Gas was used in trench warfare as it disabled the enemy as it blinded, burned and killed the
soldiers. It created a huge tension as it would shock the soldiers and reduce their morale.
The use of gas was quite effective as it was probably the most frightening death in the
trenches.…read more

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Army discipline
The use of the death penalty created a lot of controversy. Flogging was abolished. 346 men
were executed, 266 for desertion, 37 for murder.
Field punishment.
This involved being tied up for 2 hours to an object. The most common punishment was
confinement to barracks, loss of pay and unpleasant jobs.
Despite such punishments morale remained high. There was a sense of duty and obedience.
There was widespread of authority and hierarchy.…read more

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A single rat couple could produce up to 900 offspring in a year, spreading infection
and contaminating food.
Frogs, Lice and Worse
Lice were a never-ending problem, breeding in the seams of filthy clothing and
causing men to itch unceasingly.
Lice caused Trench Fever, a particularly painful disease that began suddenly with
severe pain followed by high fever.
Many men chose to shave their heads entirely to avoid another prevalent scourge: nits.…read more

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Dusk: Stand To, Supply and Maintenance
With the onset of dusk the morning ritual of stand to was repeated, again to guard against
a surprise attack launched as light fell.
Patrolling No Man's Land
Patrols would often be sent out into No Mans Land. Some men would be tasked with
repairing or adding barbed wire to the front line. Others however would go out to
assigned listening posts, hoping to pick up valuable information from the enemy lines.…read more

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Voluntary or 'voluntary'
Men actually did volunteer for the army. But many were advised to 'volunteer' or told by
bosses they were expected to volunteer. Recruiters were often shady as they were paid for
each man that enlisted so would ignore certain details e.g. age
Derby scheme.
1914 there was 1 million men. There was 2.5 million during the war. But as enthusiasm faded
and as people started dying so did volunteer to this the army was not getting the men they
needed.…read more


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