World Cities - Urbanisation

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  • Created on: 18-09-12 23:27
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World Cities
Contemporary Urbanisation processes ­ Urbanisation
Urbanisation: An increase in the proportion of a country's population that lives in towns
and cities. The two main causes or urbanisation are natural population growth and migration
into urban areas from rural areas.
Causes of urban growth
Natural growth:
Young adults have traditionally migrated from rural areas they are in their fertile
years so have children
Rates of natural increase are higher in cities than the surrounding rural areas
RuralUrban migration:
Push Factors
population growth ­ same area of land has to support increasing number of people,
causing overfarming, soil erosion and low yields
Agricultural problems, including desertification because of low rainfall, systems of
inheritance causing land to subdivided into small polits, system of tenure and debt
on lloands taken to support agricultural change
high leels of local disesases and inadequate medical provision
Changes introduced to try pay off the interest on national debts ­ land previouslt
used to grow food for local people is now used to produce crops for sale to more
developed countries
natural disastors such as floods, tropical storms and earthquakes
war and civil strife
Pull Factors
employment in factories and service industries which is better paid than work in rural
earning money from the informal area e.g selling goods on the street, providing
transport and prostitution
better quality social provisions ­ education and healthcare
perceived better quality of life
Urbanisation in Sao Paulo, Brazil Case Study:
largest city in the Southern hemisphere
population of 21million
between 1991 and 2001 the population increased by 16%
Population of central areas are decreasing and the peripheral area increasing
Initially a centre or agriculture ecporting coffee and and cotton, now a major
industrial centre with manufacturing and service industries
25% of all behicles circulate in Sao Paulo causing ppoor air quality and reducing
levels of sulphur dioxide and lead
City authorities spend $1million a day on rubbish collection

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Variations in quality of life
huge divide between rich and poor and 3 types of different housing types
conodominiums ­ luxury housing blocks within the city and on the periphery, protected by
high walls and security gates
Corticos ­ innercity dilapidated rental accommodation in subdivided 19th century tenement
buidings. many consist of blocks of oneroom dwellings in which up to 4 people live
favelas ­ informal settlements made of small. poorly built dwellings, built in the most
hazardous areas.…read more

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A mixture of social and environmental problems brought about by rapid growth and
industrialisation associated with economic development
traditional issues associated wuth the limited availability of goodquality land, shelter
and services such as clean water
problems from rapid industrialisation such as toxic or hazardous waste, water, air
and noise pollution.…read more


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