World Cities -urban decline and regeneration - urban regeneration

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World Cities
Urban decline and regeneration: Urban regeneration
Propertyled regeneration:
Urban Development Corporations
Set up in 1980s and 90s
Responsible for physical, economic and social regeneration of selected innercity
areas with large amounts of derelict and vacant land
Given planning approval powers over and above those of the local authority
Encouraged to spend public money on the purchase of land, the building
infrastructure and on marketing to attract private investment
UDCs made up of people from the local business community
Had power to acquire reclaim and service land prior to private sector involvement
and provide financial incentives to attract private investors
UDC examples ­ London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) and a
Merseyside DC ­ set up 1981
By `993 ­ UDCs accounted for nearly 40% of all urban regeneration policy
expenditure ­ over £12 billion of privatesector investment had been attracted and
£4 bullion form the public sector
They built or refurbished 35,000 housing units and created 190,000 jobs
Criticism of UDCs
UDCs too dependent on property speculation
Lost huge sums of money through compulsory purchase of land that later fell through
Greater powers than local authorities ­ democratic accountability was removed
Locals complained they had no involvement in the developments taking place
E.g. in London docklands locals felt physically and socially excluded by prestigious
new housing and hightechnology office developments
Case Study: Central Manchester Development Corporation (CMDC)
Development Corporation established after the LDDC, 1988
Partnership between the local authority and private developers was created
Aim to regenerate 200 ha of land and buildings in Southern Manchester ­ area
contained decaying warehouses, offices and former mills and contaminated land,
unsightly railway viaducts and neglected waterways
Declared a conservation area in 1979
Some buildings were refurbished into houses. E.g. Whitworth Street district,
warehouses were converted to create a villagelike community of more than 1,000
household unites, pubs, bars, restaurants and shops
Canals cleaned and their banks were improved with lighting, seating and plants to
upgrade the aesthetics of the area
Now a population entertainmentbased area for young people
CMDC engaged in widespread consultation and formulated a development strategy
that complemented plans of Manchester City Council
E.g. Castlefield once disused canals, wharves and warehouses became a mixture of
housing (some luxury), office developments and leisure facilities

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Developed its tourist potential attracts 2million visitors a year Granda studios,
Manchester museum of science and technology, the GMEX centre and Bridgewater
concert Hall
The CMDC was disbanded in 1996 ­ planning powers have reverted to
Manchester City Council
Partnerships between local and national governments and the private sector
City Challenge Partnerships
Represented a major switch of funding mechanisms towards competitive bidding
To gain funding a local authority had to come up with an imaginative project and
form a partnership I its local innercity area…read more

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By 1997 ­ over 40,000 horses had been improved, 53,000 jobs created and 2,000
ha of derelict land reclaimed and more than 3,000 new businesses established
Case Study: Hulme City Challenge Partnership, Manchester
Redeveloped as part of slum clearance programme in the 1960s ­ highrise flats
were built
98% of 5,500 dwellings were council owned
Had poor design features of prefabricated construction
Area had low level of families with children, and a disproportionate number of
singleperson households
High number of single parents and people with…read more

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Case Study: Sustainable communities in London
Labour government states the sustainable communities initiative aimed to ensure communities
Are prosperous
Have decent homes for sale or rent at prices people can afford
Safe guard green and open space
Enjoy a welldesigned, accessible and pleasant living and working environment
Effectively and fairly governed with a strong sense of community
There is an urgent need for more affordable homes all over London to
accommodate its growing population and reduce homelessness ­ It's essential that
workers who are key…read more


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