World Cities Transport and its management

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World Cities
Contemporary sustainability issues in urban areas: Transport and its management
Why is urban transport increasing?
Car ownership is increasing throughout the world, with globally 800million cars owned in
2010. In the UK more than two households own two or more cars.
Reasons for this growth
A large urban working population
High proportions of people who work in urban areas live in suburban or rural areas
People make regular journeys to and from home by road and rail
Many commuters travel between suburbs, not to town
Most public transport systems go from suburbs to the town centre
Suburb to suburb journeys must be done in private cars Increased congestion on
Expensive to expand public transport to all areas
Car travel is more convenient
Economic Growth
More service vehicles due to economic growth in retailing and consumer services
Freight traffic (delivery vans) is a result of ecommerce
Growth in urban incomes
Higher earnings in urban areas allow more car ownership
Incomes have risen faster than the relative rise in car prices, leading to multiple car
ownership in many families
Growth in the number of journeys
As cars owner ship increases, the number of journeys increases, and the usage of
public transport falls
Many extra journeys are now for leisure purposes
Urban transport solutions
Road schemes and restricted access
M25 orbital motorway ­ although increased the number of cars on the roads
Congestion charge introduced in 2003 in London to cope with chronic traffic
Any one driving through these zones of the city on a weekday are charged a toll of
£8 and there is a £60£80 fine for nonpayment
26% reduction in traffic
Scheme has generated £122 in 20005/6
4070% reduction of accidents
Road traffic management schemes
bypasses and inner ring roads
strict onstreet parking controls and expensive car parks
restrictions on access for cars ­ pedestrinisation of large areas
oneway systems and traffic calming measures

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­ E.g. park and ride schemes
Streamlining of public transport
Passenger Transport authorities set un to run and maintain efficient integrated public
transport within their areas
E.g. in the Merseyside authority Mersytravel is responsible for the Mersey tunnels,
ferries, rail and bus services
New incentives ­ new stations
New mass transit systems
provide lowcost public transport from the suburbs to the city centre
E.g.…read more


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