World Order

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  • Created on: 15-06-16 00:25
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World Order:
The issue of World Order (WO) is important and it reflects the distribution of power amongst
states and state actors.
It affects the level of stability within the global system and the balance of conflict and co-
Bipolar was was viewed as stable = each side as powerful as the other through MAD.
The post-CW emerged following the dissolution of the USSR in Nov 1991. This brought about an
intense discussion about the nature of `order; going forward.
Superpower rivalry gave way to a unipolar world: `A new World Order' popularised by George
HW Bush. where he declared `global co-operation' would replace superpower rivalry.
In 1991, the USA went to war with Iraq, for the first time the UN SC work in unison with the USSR
issuing unified resolutions.
The First Gulf War 1990-91:
With the CW coming to an end, Saddam Hussein of Iraq imposed a threat to world peace and
stability. Iran-Iraq war 1980-88: Iran was heavily in debt and there was a slump in oil prices.
Saddam Hussein's position under threat. The USA and France willing to try to deal with Iraq as an
ally by selling weapons etc increased its debt. By 1990, Iraq was verging on bankruptcy. In July
1990, Saddam accuses Kuwait of creating an international oil cries and siphoning off Iraqi oil on
their common border. Demands $2bn and moves troops to border. USA fail to emphasise
military response by US likely. End of July 100,000 Iraqi troops on Iraq-Kuwait border; USA did
not respond. Beginning August 1990, Iraq invaded within hours and controlled the country.
George Bush carefully built a global coalition (28) that crucially included regional Arab countries
including Syria and Egypt: 12 resolutions.
- Nov 29, 1990: UN SC "authorised the use of all necessary means" of force against Iraq if it did
not withdraw from Kuwait by Jan 15th.
- The USA gave financial assistance to developing countries and Russia and China to win
support. US dominated the troop deployment.
- Bush and Gorbachev were in agreement over the need to co-operate and the UN.
- Economic sanctions imposed through the UN - The USA was the real force behind this
because of Iraq's position and traffic of oil through Persian Gulf to Europe and Japan.
- 6 Aug 1990: OPERATION DESSERT SHEILD - 250,000 troops in Saudi Arabia and deadline for
withdrawal of Iraq 15 Jan 1991.
- Coalition: USA, Egypt, UK, Syria and France were the main contributors.
- There were attempts at negotiation but Saddam ignores them.
- 16 Jan: Operation Desert Storm - hugely successful - air and ground campaign.

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Another opinion however suggested the USA is now in its `unipolar moment'. The US would act
as a less as a cooperative power and more like an immense power - a hegemonic power
(possess all its disposal to `reorder' the world).
A third view suggested MULTIPOLARITY would emerge with the rise of developing powers but
also the return of old ones. Globalisation would also diffuse power even more.
While multipolarity fragments world power, question arise sit it would bring peace of instability.…read more

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- Some argue that power is shifting, the post cold war integration of world economies means
economy mights is as important as military might but also other forms;
- Coined by Nye in the late 1980s, the term soft power -- the ability to persuade others to do
what it wants without force of coercion -- is now widely invoked in foreign policy debates.…read more

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He was seen to be moving in a socialist direction;
- The USA intervened by sponsoring a CIA coup against him and paying a mob to stage
- Returned the Shah to pose - oil was now shared out - UK and US equally shared 80%;
- Guatemala 54 - Arbenz pursued a socialist land reform;
- CIA funded militia force and gave them bomber;
- Colonel Armos became president, a ruthless dictator;
- Successive military regimes murdered more than 100,000 civilians.…read more

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Robert Kagan, "when most people think of a post-American world, they think of a return to
multipolarity - an international configuration of power where several powers list in rough parity"
Charles Kupchan likewise argues a weakening of US primacy and the establishment of a
multipolar world that will not have a "centre of gravity" but will instead be characterised by a
diffusion of power among several major world players.…read more

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Is the USA in decline?
The USA no longer `leads' the liberal world order, as America still has the capacity to renew itself. Indeed
it has lost support amongst allies that see it as a the Obama presidency has worked hard to rebrand
`hyperpower' and out of control. America, by pursuing a `strategy of national renewal'
and reviving US leadership. He retreated from some
controversial foreign policy decisions such as Iraq
and Afghan.…read more

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Encouraging the lifting of trade barriers via international agreements such as NAFTA and the
TPP. Clinton's presidency saw an optimistic programme of `democratic enlargement' and
spreading the benefits of globalisation. It became known as `The Clinton Doctrine'. During the
90's and early 200's, the US negotiated a series of free trade agreements and through the WTO
worked to reduce tariff barriers and non-tariff berries of over 100 countries.…read more

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· 9/11 - `the world changed'.
· Wear was meant to be a sideline in global politics, yet it returns in the form of terror.
· Under the radar, terrorists who felt no connection with this liberal order hit the World Trade
Centre - the heart of US economic and security
· The Bush administration had started early that year with a very mild global agenda, but swung
into action by declaring the `war on terror'.…read more

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The rise of China:
Niall Ferguson has written that the bloody twentieth century witnessed "the descent of the West"
and "a reorientation of the World" towards the East.
Marshier argues that as China gets more powerful and the USA's position erodes, two things are
likely to happen:
1. China will try to use its growing influence to reshape the rules and institutions of the
international system to better serve its interests;
2.…read more

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An ageing workforce is bad for growing power;
3. Less than 1% of China's 500 citifies meet WHO air quality standards. A new study estimated
that 4,000 Chinese day prematurely each day thanks to air pollution;
4. Chinese environment ministry has stated that nearly 1/3 of surface water and 2/3 of
underground water is "unfit for human contact".
5. Ian Bremmer: `China's growing strength threatens the established world order... the world
will be shaped by Beijing's successes and its failures'.…read more


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