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World Order:

The issue of World Order (WO) is important and it reflects the distribution of power amongst
states and state actors.
It affects the level of stability within the global system and the balance of conflict and co-

Bipolar was was viewed as stable = each side as…

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Another opinion however suggested the USA is now in its `unipolar moment'. The US would act
as a less as a cooperative power and more like an immense power - a hegemonic power
(possess all its disposal to `reorder' the world).
A third view suggested MULTIPOLARITY would emerge…

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- Some argue that power is shifting, the post cold war integration of world economies means
economy mights is as important as military might but also other forms;
- Coined by Nye in the late 1980s, the term soft power -- the ability to persuade others…

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- He was seen to be moving in a socialist direction;
- The USA intervened by sponsoring a CIA coup against him and paying a mob to stage
- Returned the Shah to pose - oil was now shared out - UK and US equally shared 80%;
- Guatemala…

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Robert Kagan, "when most people think of a post-American world, they think of a return to
multipolarity - an international configuration of power where several powers list in rough parity"
Charles Kupchan likewise argues a weakening of US primacy and the establishment of a
multipolar world that will not have…

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Is the USA in decline?


The USA no longer `leads' the liberal world order, as America still has the capacity to renew itself. Indeed
it has lost support amongst allies that see it as a the Obama presidency has worked hard to rebrand
`hyperpower' and out of control.…

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Encouraging the lifting of trade barriers via international agreements such as NAFTA and the
TPP. Clinton's presidency saw an optimistic programme of `democratic enlargement' and
spreading the benefits of globalisation. It became known as `The Clinton Doctrine'. During the
90's and early 200's, the US negotiated a series of free…

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· 9/11 - `the world changed'.
· Wear was meant to be a sideline in global politics, yet it returns in the form of terror.
· Under the radar, terrorists who felt no connection with this liberal order hit the World Trade
Centre - the heart…

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The rise of China:

Niall Ferguson has written that the bloody twentieth century witnessed "the descent of the West"
and "a reorientation of the World" towards the East.
Marshier argues that as China gets more powerful and the USA's position erodes, two things are
likely to happen:
1. China will…

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2. An ageing workforce is bad for growing power;
3. Less than 1% of China's 500 citifies meet WHO air quality standards. A new study estimated
that 4,000 Chinese day prematurely each day thanks to air pollution;
4. Chinese environment ministry has stated that nearly 1/3 of surface water and…




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