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Working Memory Model (Baddeley and Hitch)
This model is high in face validity, meaning the model seems plausible.
o In this case, it seems plausible because it fits with everyday experience of
manipulating information when solving problems, with short term memory as an
active process rather than a static store.
Lack of evidence on the central executive (C ) - it seems to be able to deal with all tasks but it
is very difficult to investigate this empirically.
o Eslinger and Damasio studied a patient called E.V.R who had a cerebral tumour
removed. He was able to do some tasks linked with the CE e.g. tasks requiring
reasoning but no other tasks that required involvement of the CE e.g. he had poor
decision making skills.
Empirical evidence comes from lab experiments using simplistic stimuli (which concern only
The division of the STM into further components more accurately reflects evidence from
brain damaged patients.
o Shallice and Warrington's study of K.F. revealed that his short term forgetting of
auditory stimuli was much greater than his short term forgetting of visual stimuli.
He could remember meaningful sounds but not words.
Shallice and Warrington concluded that K.F.'s problems centred on what they
called the `auditory-verbal short-term store'.