Women's opportunities in Stalin's Russia.

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Evidence that women had greater opportunities in Stalinist Russia.
1930's women entered the Russian workforce for the first time.
Demands of the Five Year Plan meant that women joined the industrial labour force. 2 million
women in the force at the beginning of the First Five Year Plan ; by 1940 there was 13 million.
1940, over 41% of workers in heavy industry was women.
Soviet authorities recognised important contribution made by women to the industry and
therefore increased the allocation of places in higher/technical education available to
women. ( from 20%, 1929 0- 40%, 1940)
1945, 80% of collective farmers were women.
Women represented in the stakhanovite movement in the countryside.
1936, 62% of delegates from cattle and dairy farms to the Stakhanovite Livestock Workers'
Conference were milkmaids.
Rewards to mothers who had large families. If they had more than 6 children they qualified
for state help.
1920's, Communist families to employ nannies in order for the communist party wives to still
be involved in political work.
`' wife activists' movement'' wife's of the party officials were expected to be involved .
Attempted to create solidarity between women who were devoted to being `mistresses of
the great Soviet home'. Also organised nurseries and activities for ill children, set up schools
and libraries and charitable work. Attempting to `mother' the whole Soviet society.
Evidence that women had limited opportunities in Stalinist Russia.
Senior male members of the Communist Party paid little attention to the role of women.
Soviet authorities continued to pay women less than their male counterparts. ( women
income was 60-65% of the income of men doing the same job)
Soviet authorities discouraged abortions, making it illegal.
As well as working women were still expected to look after the home and their families.
Although men had been liberated from their domestic duties. Women spent 5X longer on
domestic responsibilities than men.
Communist Party Wives were expected not to work, devoting themselves to maintaining the
home.
1930's, the practice of employing nannies so communist party wives could still be involved
with political work was frowned upon. They was encouraged to concentrate on their duty at
home.

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