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Chemistry Mocks Jan 11
Ionic and covalent bonding
Ionic = +'s and ­`s bonded together,
Simple molecular is covalent
Giant covalent- not all joined together
Giant metallic- only +'s and square shaped solid structure.

A radical is a group of atoms that exist in several compounds but does not exist…

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The fourth electron which is not used in bonding becomes part of a sea of free electrons between layers of carbon
Therefore, GRAPHITE CAN CONDUCT ELECTRICITY AND IS DUCTILE (the layers can slide over one another)
The carbon atoms are held together by string electrostatic forces of attraction and…

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Some made into nitric acid to neutralise the ammonia to nitrates. Some neutralised using sulphuric acid to make
ammonium sulphate
Ammonia solution + sulphuric acid -> ammonium sulphate
2NH3 + H2SO4 -> (NH4)2 SO4

Ammonia solution + nitric acid -> ammonium nitrate
NH3 + HNO3 -> NH4NO3

Fertiliser can encourage…

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During polymerisation, many small molecules called MONOERS join together to make very large polymers.
The double bonds break so the monomers can join on to other monomers
More than pone Ethene = polyethene (chain of Ethene)
Remember the brackets! When showing polymerisation

Addition polymerisation ­ e.g. when we add Ethene…

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Smart materials

Smart materials is a material whose properties can change depending on their surroundings e.g. light,
Shape memory alloy ­ nickel and titanium ­ nitinol/NiTi ­ regains original shape when heated. Used in
spectacle frames, coffee thermostats.
Shape memory polymer ­ plastic which regain its shape when heated-…

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The Blast Furnace

Iron is extracted for its ore, haematite, in a blast furnace.
Haematite is a mineral of which most is iron oxide Fe2O3

Haematite is mixed with the following before it is heated in the blast frnace;

Coke- the main element is carbon- burns in air to produce…

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So, we dissolve the aluminium oxide in cryolite. This brings the melting temp down to 900 C so the
aluminium is cheaper to heat up, so cheaper to produce

The electrolyte has an electrical current which causes the ions to move to the opposite poles.

The oxygen ( is attracted…

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Coastal locations provide good transport links ­ most of the worlds bauxite arrives by ship from Australia or
Good road links are needed to transport the aluminium throughout the country
Location must be chosen to have as little impact on existing towns and villages and are therefore sited in…

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But, in an alloy, a different sized atom disrupts the regular pattern so the ions cant slide past ach other as
easily in an alloy.
Both metals and alloys are good conductors of electricity as the metal atoms give up electrons forming ions
allowing the metal to carry a charge…

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Sodium carbonate (washing soda) can also soften the water
Calcium hydrogen carbonate calcium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water

Permanent hard water

Harness cannot be removed by boiling. The solution contains calcium/magnesium sulphates. Can e softened
by adding sodium carbonate (washing soda0, or by using a ion exchange column e.g.…


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