williams et al

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WILLIAMS et al ­ NOTEL and aggression
AIM ­ to measure children's behaviour before and after TV had been introduced and compare it to
towns which already had TV
DESIGN ­ Independent Measures Design
Natural experiment
IV ­ whether there was TV
DV ­ acts of aggression carried out by the children
Measured range of behaviour
Leisure activities involved in
IQ level
Creativity and reading ability
2 observers observed children in playground and classroom
Only started observing once children were used to them
Measured the number of physical and verbal acts of aggression
Notel ­ no TV
Unitel ­ one channel
Multitel ­ many channels
Children were twice as aggressive after TV
Children and adults spent less time on leisure activities
Children saw increased gender differences between boys and girls
Children less creative
IQ dropped slightly
Unitel and Multitel were similar but Notel was very different
Notel showed increased level of aggression
Number of channels does not affect aggression level it is whether TV is there or not
TV also reduced time spent in leisure activities and lowered creativity and intelligence

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Strength Weakness
Done in real place ­ ecological validity No control over what or how much TV was
IV occurred naturally Researchers don't know the adult supervision or
control over what is being watched
Two year study so before and after effect was Research bias ­ researchers see what they want
compared to see
Same children were observed so can be directly
Children observed in natural environment so Subjective ­ only 2 observers
they act normally May have different views of…read more


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