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1) The decline of Party membership and
electoral participation
· Class de-alignment ­ the Working Class are no longer as
closely aligned to the Labour party and the Middle Class no
longer as aligned to the Conservatives.
· BLURRING = New Labour appealed to Conservatives due to
the economic policies that Blair used.
· The Social Class system has fragmented thus people are less
likely to be socialised into supporting a political party…read more

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Party de-alignment
· The public now have less respect and deference for politicians
due to sleaze, controversy and perceived ineffectiveness to
deliver the policies in their manifesto.
· Less trust of politicians = SLEAZE (John Major and Edwina
Currie, Paddy `Pants-down', MPs expenses [reason: News of
the World]
· The decline in voting ­ less turnout at gen. elections
· Increased rationalism of voters ­ selfish, egoistic voters
· Decrease in popularity of FPTP [reason: 2010/11 electoral
reform referendum]
· Increase in floating voters
· Fall in voting participation…read more

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Why PG activity is growing
· PGs seen as a more direct form of democracy, direct action is
more acceptable than past.
· People seeking their idealism in PGs not political parties. Tend
to choose groups ­ RSPB
· Rise in living standards since WW2 ­people have spare time
and freedom from financial worries to participate in
campaigning (due to sectional groups like trade unions
improving living standards)…read more

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Environmentalism and Technology
· Growth of environmentalist bodies reflect a growing
concern for damage done to planet in search of higher
living standards
· Decline of Marxism at same time as growth in anti
globalisation movement
· Technology change allows protesters to communicate
across national boundaries (this technology is provided
by transnational concerns for communication)…read more

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Professionals and the Media
· New middle class professionals often attracted to PGs &
provide skills of running campaigns and relish a battle of wits
against the state/companies ­usually global
· Trend of PGs putting up candidates in elections ­ not
· Growing influence of the Media-effectiveness of publicity
stunts, reported by a media hungry for news. 2005 election
included:- Anti Fuel tax lobby, F4J, Greenpeace, solar panels
on Prescotts home, Countryside Alliance…read more

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