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SECTION 6 ­WHY DID THE COLD WAR END?

Détente
= permanent relaxation in relations between the Superpowers

Moves Towards and Away From Détente
Began in 1963 when the hotline was set up between Kremlin and White House ­
symbol that if future relations worsened, problems could be solved more easily…

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Early 1970s USSR had a distinct advantage in ICBMs ­ arms race was frozen with
USSR appearing to be ahead
July 1974 Nixon visited Moscow and agreed with Brezhnev to relax tensions
throughout the world, promote understanding between the two countries and
develop artistic and sporting links
1975 USSR and…

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Afghanistan and Worsening of Relations

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
1978 Marxist government came to power in Afghanistan and a 20year treaty of
friendship was signed with USSR
Summer 1979 Mujaheddin (Muslim resistance groups) had been set up to oppose
land reforms and educational changes
September 1979 Nur Mohammed Taraki (Marxist…

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o Defeat humiliated USSR ­ Superpower was defeated by a group of
guerrillas
o Huge financial cost played a significant part in bankruptcy of USSR in the
1980s
o 1980 USA boycotted Olympic Games in Moscow

Olympic Boycotts
1980 Carter announced that USA would boycott the Moscow Olympic Games if…

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1983 Reagan announced Strategic Defence Initiative (also known as Star Wars) ­ a
plan to shoot down Soviet missiles using lasers in space. Not a serious proposition,
only to scare Soviet leaders to put pressure on them to be more willing to negotiate
about nuclear arm reduction by USA's rules…

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o USSR had supported communist regimes across the world through
COMECON ­ huge drain on USSR's finances
o Space programme of USSR was ambitious and expensive as USSR tried to
outdo USA in the Space Race
o Military expenditure continued to rise as the Afghan War progressed ­ no
leader…

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Further START to discuss reduction in armaments and conventional forces

New York Summit (1988)
Last summit between Reagan and Gorbachev, also attended by Presidentelect
George Bush Snr
Gorbachev indicated he was going to speed up arms reduction and wanted to
complete the START Treaty before Bush became President
Bush and…

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November 1989 demonstrators demanded changes to the system of government in
East Germany, demonstrations began to increase in intensity ­ East German
government tried to diffuse situation by opening borders with West Germany which
led to hundreds of thousands of East Germans swarming into West Germany to visit
relatives but…

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