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Cognitive Interview ­ Fisher and
Geiselman (1992)
A01 ­
A02 ­
·Report everything · Effectiveness ­ Kohnken (1999) ­ 34%
increase in accurate information ­ meta
·Mental reinstatement analysis 53 studies
·Time consuming ­ Kebbell and Wagstaff
of context ­ requires more time
·Useful for older pps ­ Mello & Fisher
·Change perspective (1996) ­ CI produced more info ­ proved
particularly useful for older pps
·Change Order ·Milne & Bull (2002) ­ undergrads
interviewed using one or several
components of CI ­ those that used 1 had
no improvement ­ those with several
significantly improved…read more

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Memory improvement
A02-
A01 ­ · Gruneberg (1973) 30% psyc students revising for
exams used verbal mnemonics (acrostic & acronyms
Verbal
being most popular)
techniques: · Weakness -Slavin (2005) ­ mainly lab conditions
·Acrostic used with materials specifically appropriate ­ helped
learn foreign vocab but not actually speak it
·Acronym
·Helps learning disabilities (Broadly & MacDonald
·Rhyme 1993) ­ 63 children with Down Syndrome ­ 2 phases
involving STM improvement and memory
·Chunking
improvement skills ­ significantly better memory…read more

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MSM ­ Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
A01 ­
Sensory Memory ­ Attention ­ STM (fragile state ) ­ Verbal rehearsal ­ LTM
A02 ­
· HM (Scoville & Milner 1957) ­ Hippocampus removed to
prevent severe epilepsy ­ personality intact ­ couldn't
form LTMs ­ hippocampus acts as gateway
· Strength ­ provides 3 clear components ­ provides
assumptions that psychologists can test
·Weakness ­ focuses too much on structure and
simplifies processes
·Lacks external validity ­ most memory studies on
college students ­ different memories to older pps ­ cant
generalise…read more

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WMM ­ Baddely & Hitch (1974)
A01 ­ A02 ­
· Central executive ­ key component ·Shallice & Warrington (1970) KF ­ STM works
­ assigns tasks to `slave components'
seperately ­ learn LTMs but aspects of
·Visuo- spatial sketchpad - Visual
immediate memory impaired
cache (stores visual data) ­ Inner
·Limitations of Central executive ­ simplified
scribe (encodes arrangement of
­ one store unrealistic (probably made up of
objects )
·Phonological loop ­ phonological many)
store (holds the words we hear) ·Build on MSM ­ emphasises process more
articulatory process ( allows than MSM
maintenance rehearsal) ·Explanatory power ­ explains research
·Episodic buffer (links to LTM) findings that MSM can't…read more

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EWT and accuracy ­ Loftus & Palmer
(1974)
A01 ­ A02 ­
Exp 1 ­ 45 students ­ showed
·Lacks validity ­ setting isn't true to life ­ pps may
films of traffic accidents ­
questions including critical one not take the task seriously ­ Recall more accurate in
`how fast was car going' using
real life (Foster et al)
different verbs
Group who had `smashed' ·Individual differences ­ Wells & Olsen (2003) ­
predicted higher speed than
males & females pay attention to different details of
those with `contacted'
the crime ­ both however are equally accurate
Exp 2 ­ different pps shown ·EWT in real life ­ Yuille & Cutshall (1986) ­ 13
film of accident ­ week later
asked if saw any broken glass ­ people that witnessed bank robbery ­ 4 months after
those who heard question with crime interviewed ­ 2 misleading questions ­
`smashed' were more likely to
recall broken glass provided accurate recall ­ suggesting post event info
may not effect accuracy…read more

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