Who was to blame for the cold war?

Revision notes on the cold war.

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Flo
  • Created on: 25-04-09 13:20
Preview of Who was to blame for the cold war?

First 415 words of the document:

Who was to blame for the Cold War?
THE BEGINNINGS OF THE COLD WAR
The Yalta Conference (Feb 1945):
Met at Yalta to decide what would happen after Germany's defeat.
Big Three ­ Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill.
Stalin agreed to enter war against Japan when Germany had been defeated.
Agreed Germany would be divided into 4 (USSR, GB, USA, France).
Berlin divided into 4 ­ in the Soviet zone.
Punish war criminals for the genocide in Concentration Camps.
Countries liberated from German occupation ­ vote to see which government they wanted.
Big Three ­ agreed to join the UN Organisation ­ keep peace after war.
Eastern Europe ­ seen as soviet sphere of influence (Stalin was worried about security of
USSR as they had been weakened in war).
Poland:
Stalin wanted the USSR to move into the east of Poland ­ said Poland, in turn, could move
westwards into the east of Germany.
Churchill didn't approve ­ not much he could do as Stalin's red army was in Poland and
eastern Germany.
Roosevelt unhappy ­ Churchill convinced him to accept it as long as the USSR didn't
interfere with Greece where the British were attempting to stop communists taking over
it ­ Stalin accepts this.
Stalin:
Dislikes Churchill.
Dislikes Roosevelt but is more discreet about it.
Thinks they don't accept that the Soviet Union is there.
Churchill is dangerous and farsighted.
Churchill:
Thinks Soviet Union is dangerous ­ willing to take action against them.
Fears Roosevelt is too pro-Russian.
Roosevelt:
Dislikes Russia but not as much.
Potsdam Conference (1945):
War in Europe had been won by allies.
Second conference.
Changes:
Stalin's armies now occupying most of Eastern Europe ­ had liberated countries but left
his own troops there ­ refugees fleeing as they feared a Communist take-over. Set up
Communist government in Poland ­ against their wishes. Insisted it was a defensive
measure.
America has a new President ­ Roosevelt died ­ Harry Truman (VP) takes over ­ much
more Anti-Communist ­ suspicious of Stalin. Saw Soviet actions in Eastern Europe as
preparations for Communists to take over more of Europe.
Allies tested an atomic bomb ­ Americans tested one in USA.
Disagreements:
What to do about Germany ­ Stalin wants to cripple Germany to protect USSR. Truman
doesn't want a repeat of the TOV.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Reparations ­ 20 million Russians died in war and Soviet Union had been devastated ­
Stalin wants compensation. Truman again determined not to repeat the mistakes of the
Second World War.
Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe ­ Yalta ­ Stalin had won agreement form Allies that he
could set up pro-Soviet govn.s in Eastern Europe ­ said if Eastern Europeans were united
then no one would move against them. Truman was unhappy about Russian intentions and
adopted a `get tough' attitude against Stalin.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Believed other countries should be run the Communist way.
Bitterly opposed to Capitalism.
Both Superpowers ­ only ones strong enough to exercise international leadership ­ replaced
Britain and France.
USA aware of responsibility ­ didn't want to repeat mistakes of the 1930s (isolationism, not
getting involved in Europe) ­ worried about another conflict if they didn't get involved in
world affairs.
USA ­ no appeasement for dictators ­ every communist action would be met with a response
from the US.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

US attitude changed when Communists took over Czechoslovakia.
Had been ruled by a coalition government (including Communists) which had tried to pursue
policies independent of Moscow.
March 1948 ­ Anti-Soviet leaders thrown out ­ one pro American Minister was found dead
below his open window ­ `suicide'.
Immediately, Congress accepted the Marshall Plan and made $17 billion available over a
period of 4 years.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

BUT not willing to go to war.
Tension of Berlin Blockade ­ characterised much of the Cold War period.
ANTI-COMMUNISM IN THE USA
Senator Joseph McCarthy ­ alleged Soviet Union had a conspiracy to get Communist
sympathisers to key positions in the USA.
Said Communists had infiltrated US society.
Claimed there were 57 Communists in the State Department alone.
1950-4 ­ tried to find these Communists.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Peace talks between North and South Korea began in June 1951 ­ fighting continued until
1952 however until Truman was replaced with Eisenhower who wanted to end the war.
Stalin's death in March 1953 made the Chinese and North Koreans less confident ­ armistice
signed in July 1953.
WAS CONTAINMENT THE RIGHT POLICY?
USA ­ Communism had to be resisted ­ disagreed how they should do it.
Some favoured aggressive policy proposed by MacArthur ­ felt `containment' was not
enough.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

­ USSR detonates its own H-bomb.
1954 ­ USA develops an H-bomb small enough to be dropped from a bomber. USSR drops a
test H-bomb from a bomber.
1956 ­ USA develops U-2 spy plane to spy on soviet weapons development.
1957 ­ USSR develops the first UCBM (weapon which leaves Earth's atmosphere and splits
up into multiple warheads which re-enter the Earth's atmosphere). Launch the Sputnik
satellite into orbit ­ USA shocked by Soviet advances in the `Space Race'.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Helplessness and fear ­ was this the end?…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »