Who was to blame for the cold war?

Revision notes on the cold war.

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Who was to blame for the Cold War?
The Yalta Conference (Feb 1945):
Met at Yalta to decide what would happen after Germany's defeat.
Big Three ­ Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill.
Stalin agreed to enter war against Japan when Germany had been defeated.
Agreed Germany would be divided into 4 (USSR, GB, USA, France).
Berlin divided into 4 ­ in the Soviet zone.
Punish war criminals for the genocide in Concentration Camps.
Countries liberated from German occupation ­ vote to see which government they wanted.
Big Three ­ agreed to join the UN Organisation ­ keep peace after war.
Eastern Europe ­ seen as soviet sphere of influence (Stalin was worried about security of
USSR as they had been weakened in war).
Stalin wanted the USSR to move into the east of Poland ­ said Poland, in turn, could move
westwards into the east of Germany.
Churchill didn't approve ­ not much he could do as Stalin's red army was in Poland and
eastern Germany.
Roosevelt unhappy ­ Churchill convinced him to accept it as long as the USSR didn't
interfere with Greece where the British were attempting to stop communists taking over
it ­ Stalin accepts this.
Dislikes Churchill.
Dislikes Roosevelt but is more discreet about it.
Thinks they don't accept that the Soviet Union is there.
Churchill is dangerous and farsighted.
Thinks Soviet Union is dangerous ­ willing to take action against them.
Fears Roosevelt is too pro-Russian.
Dislikes Russia but not as much.
Potsdam Conference (1945):
War in Europe had been won by allies.
Second conference.
Stalin's armies now occupying most of Eastern Europe ­ had liberated countries but left
his own troops there ­ refugees fleeing as they feared a Communist take-over. Set up
Communist government in Poland ­ against their wishes. Insisted it was a defensive
America has a new President ­ Roosevelt died ­ Harry Truman (VP) takes over ­ much
more Anti-Communist ­ suspicious of Stalin. Saw Soviet actions in Eastern Europe as
preparations for Communists to take over more of Europe.
Allies tested an atomic bomb ­ Americans tested one in USA.
What to do about Germany ­ Stalin wants to cripple Germany to protect USSR. Truman
doesn't want a repeat of the TOV.

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Reparations ­ 20 million Russians died in war and Soviet Union had been devastated ­
Stalin wants compensation. Truman again determined not to repeat the mistakes of the
Second World War.
Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe ­ Yalta ­ Stalin had won agreement form Allies that he
could set up pro-Soviet govn.s in Eastern Europe ­ said if Eastern Europeans were united
then no one would move against them. Truman was unhappy about Russian intentions and
adopted a `get tough' attitude against Stalin.…read more

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Believed other countries should be run the Communist way.
Bitterly opposed to Capitalism.
Both Superpowers ­ only ones strong enough to exercise international leadership ­ replaced
Britain and France.
USA aware of responsibility ­ didn't want to repeat mistakes of the 1930s (isolationism, not
getting involved in Europe) ­ worried about another conflict if they didn't get involved in
world affairs.
USA ­ no appeasement for dictators ­ every communist action would be met with a response
from the US.…read more

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US attitude changed when Communists took over Czechoslovakia.
Had been ruled by a coalition government (including Communists) which had tried to pursue
policies independent of Moscow.
March 1948 ­ Anti-Soviet leaders thrown out ­ one pro American Minister was found dead
below his open window ­ `suicide'.
Immediately, Congress accepted the Marshall Plan and made $17 billion available over a
period of 4 years.…read more

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BUT not willing to go to war.
Tension of Berlin Blockade ­ characterised much of the Cold War period.
Senator Joseph McCarthy ­ alleged Soviet Union had a conspiracy to get Communist
sympathisers to key positions in the USA.
Said Communists had infiltrated US society.
Claimed there were 57 Communists in the State Department alone.
1950-4 ­ tried to find these Communists.…read more

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Peace talks between North and South Korea began in June 1951 ­ fighting continued until
1952 however until Truman was replaced with Eisenhower who wanted to end the war.
Stalin's death in March 1953 made the Chinese and North Koreans less confident ­ armistice
signed in July 1953.
USA ­ Communism had to be resisted ­ disagreed how they should do it.
Some favoured aggressive policy proposed by MacArthur ­ felt `containment' was not
enough.…read more

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­ USSR detonates its own H-bomb.
1954 ­ USA develops an H-bomb small enough to be dropped from a bomber. USSR drops a
test H-bomb from a bomber.
1956 ­ USA develops U-2 spy plane to spy on soviet weapons development.
1957 ­ USSR develops the first UCBM (weapon which leaves Earth's atmosphere and splits
up into multiple warheads which re-enter the Earth's atmosphere). Launch the Sputnik
satellite into orbit ­ USA shocked by Soviet advances in the `Space Race'.…read more

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Helplessness and fear ­ was this the end?…read more


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