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Who was to blame for the Cold War?


The Yalta Conference (Feb 1945):
Met at Yalta to decide what would happen after Germany's defeat.
Big Three ­ Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill.
Stalin agreed to enter war against Japan when Germany had been defeated.

Page 2

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Reparations ­ 20 million Russians died in war and Soviet Union had been devastated ­
Stalin wants compensation. Truman again determined not to repeat the mistakes of the
Second World War.
Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe ­ Yalta ­ Stalin had won agreement form Allies that he
could set up…

Page 3

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Believed other countries should be run the Communist way.
Bitterly opposed to Capitalism.
Both Superpowers ­ only ones strong enough to exercise international leadership ­ replaced
Britain and France.
USA aware of responsibility ­ didn't want to repeat mistakes of the 1930s (isolationism, not
getting involved in Europe) ­ worried…

Page 4

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US attitude changed when Communists took over Czechoslovakia.
Had been ruled by a coalition government (including Communists) which had tried to pursue
policies independent of Moscow.
March 1948 ­ Anti-Soviet leaders thrown out ­ one pro American Minister was found dead
below his open window ­ `suicide'.
Immediately, Congress accepted…

Page 5

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BUT not willing to go to war.
Tension of Berlin Blockade ­ characterised much of the Cold War period.


Senator Joseph McCarthy ­ alleged Soviet Union had a conspiracy to get Communist
sympathisers to key positions in the USA.
Said Communists had infiltrated US society.

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Peace talks between North and South Korea began in June 1951 ­ fighting continued until
1952 however until Truman was replaced with Eisenhower who wanted to end the war.
Stalin's death in March 1953 made the Chinese and North Koreans less confident ­ armistice
signed in July 1953.


Page 7

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1953 ­ USSR detonates its own H-bomb.
1954 ­ USA develops an H-bomb small enough to be dropped from a bomber. USSR drops a
test H-bomb from a bomber.
1956 ­ USA develops U-2 spy plane to spy on soviet weapons development.
1957 ­ USSR develops the first UCBM (weapon…

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Helplessness and fear ­ was this the end?


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