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Weimar Politics under Stresemann
The Dawes Plan, 1926,
To adopt a "policy of fulfilment" to prove Germany was a responsible country and change Versailles when
other countries realised it was unworkable.
New markets, new sources of capital, to restore confidence in the economy.
The proposals were drawn up by American banker, Charles Dawes.
1. France would leave the Ruhr,
2. Reparations payable over a longer term. A moratorium for three years. A higher rate would be paid
3. Reichbank to be reorganised under Allied supervision.
DNVP (right wing) was prepared to work within the system to improve it. Some however, still did not like the
democratic republic. DDP and Centre party withdrew support. SPD obstructed and withdrew their support.
Obstruction by the SPD,
A new Coalition 1925, led by Hans Luther excluded the socialists.
The Heidelberg Programme.
The SPD were the largest party, with 26% of the votes; 131 seats. They adopted this programme to introduce
Marxist based policies i.e. the nationalisation of private industry. The SPD did not want to cooperate with
Effects of SPD Obstruction,
The SPD influence was reduced in the Reichstag.
But their "tacit" support often helps governments to survive.
Hindenburg (1925+) was violently anti-Socialist and attempted to exclude the SPD from influence.
Election of President Hindenburg, April 1925,
Hindenburg's Appointment reinforced the stalemate in government and was to have serious consequences for
the government. Cooperation of all parties was needed to tackle Germany's problems!
He only won the election due to a split in the Right Wing vote.
His support came mainly from the right, who were also anti-socialist and hoped the swing to the right would
damage the democracy.
Use of Presidential Powers,
Overused presidential powers i.e. Article 48 and rule by decree.
Emphasised power of the President (Knock on effect on Chancellor Power).
Constantly formed coalitions to exclude the SPD (but they were frequently one of the largest parties.)
Wherever possible, the DNVP was included as part of a coalition.
In 1926 the Ministry of the Interior introduced a law to define the use of Article 48 he blocked it!
January 1926 - Luther's minority government of Centre, DVP and DNVP failed.
May 1926 Marx's government failed after June referendum to confiscate royal referendum. Had relied
on tacit support from SPD which collapsed when they withdrew it.
January 1927 Another Marx government, including DNVP, but struggled due to diversity of membership.
Collapsed in 1928 over the issue of education.
May Election, 1928,
The Left made important gains. SPD increased to 153 seats. KPD rose by 9 to 54.New parties and interest
groups. NSDAP vote 14 seats. (Still not big). Polarisation in politics started to form, as Centre parties lost
Movement to Extremes,
DNVP started to edge right, from a broad coalition to a narrow anti-Republican one.
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DNVP vote fell from 20.5% in 1924 to 14.2% in 1928.
"LAMBACH ARTICLE" (1928) was the trigger for the party's move. Its pro-Republican tone split the party.
Hugenburg became leader on DNVP in October 1928 as an anti-democratic.
The Grand Coalition,
June 1928, Ministry dominated by Socialists under Muller, included DVP, DDP, Centre and BVP. Aimed to
steer Young Plan through the Reichstag.
The Young Plan was to deal with the issue of Reparations.
The Young Plan, 1929,
Time scale for Reparations.…read more