Weimar in Crisis 1919

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Weimar in Crisis 1919-1923
A bad start
Germany had no tradition of democracy and had always had strong leaders.
Germans weren't ready for democracy.
Germans had suffered very badly because of the war. Many were starving
and many were furious at the loss of the war - they blamed the new
Lack of Consensus
There were huge political divisions in German society.
Opinion was polarised with extremists on the left (Spartacists and socialists),
and on the right, (nationalists and conservatives) both getting a lot of
There were many small political parties.
Weimar Constitution
Proportional representation meant that the lack of political consensus was
reflected closely in elected parties.
There were many political parties and frequent changes of government.
It was very difficult to establish stability or even get laws passed.
Versailles Treaty
The Treaty had been very hard on Germany and the Weimar Government had
been forced to accept it.
Many Germans hated and resented the loss of territory, the reparations and
the war guilt clause
It wasn't their fault but the Weimar government tended to get the blame.
Extremists Attacks
The Spartacists Rebellion 1919
The Munich Communist Soviet 1919
The right wing Kapp Putsch 1920
The assassination of foreign Minister Rathenau 1922
Hitler's failed Munich Putsch 1923
Crisis 1923
1922 reparations crisis.
France invaded the rich industrial Ruhr area in retaliation.
Weimar ordered passive resistance on the part of Germans in the Ruhr.
Weimar printed more money to try and solve the problem (hyperinflation)

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