First 337 words of the document:
Proportional representation made weak coalition governments and so
therefore cause unstable law making.
Article 48 (president could make emergency laws) left Germany vulnerable
to a dictatorship.
Many (conservative) groups didn't want a republic.
January 1919- spartacists rebel because they want communist rule,
Friekorps (ex soldiers) put down the rebellion and went on to kill more
March 1920- Kapp putsch: Friekorps rebel because they felt betrayed by
September 1923 Munich putsch: (right wing) rebelled because they saw
the ending of passive resistance as a betrayal, so the Nazi's attempted a
revolution. Crushed by army and police.
Crises of 1923:
Occupation of the Ruhr- Germany didn't keep up reparation payments,
France invaded Ruhr to seize raw materials, workers responded with
passive resistance, this lead to increase in inflation.
Hyperinflation- Government printed money, value of money decreased +
process increased. Savings and pensions became worthless.
Munich putsch- Right wing rebellion because they saw the ending of the
passive resistance in the Ruhr as a betrayal.
1923- Stresemann made chancellor and foreign minister until 1929, he
helped bring a period of prosperity to Germany and improved their
relationship with other countries.
Established stable currency with the temporary Rentenmark, the
following year introduced the Reichsmark. He also called off strikes in the
Ruhr, these two measures helped to end hyperinflation.
Dawes plan agreed in 1924, helped with reparations by providing an
American loan, the money helped rebuild German trade and industry +
economy began to recover.
Young plan reduces the amount Germany had to pay in reparations.
1925 Locarno treaties guaranteed frontiers.
1926 Germany joined League of Nations.
1929 young plan helped with reparations and meant allied forces
withdrew from Rhineland.
1924-29 more stable governments due to improved economy.
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HOWEVER, THERE WERE STILL PROBLEMS: loans could be withdrawn at any
time. Unemployment was still a huge problem. Employers complained about
the high taxes. Extremes of both wealth and poverty.
Changes to Nazi party 1924-29:
After his prison time due to the Munich putsch, Hitler realized they needed to
change their tactics and gain power through elections rather than force. Between
1924-28 he reorganized the party and strengthened his leadership position, but
they still only gained 12 seats in the 1928 election.…read more