Weimar and Nazi German Timeline

Timeline notes of all the key events that took place between 1918-1945

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Sunday 9th May 2010German HistoryJonathan CarradiceFrench
German History 19191945 ­ Key Pacts, Acts, Laws and Statistics
1918, November ­ Republic. Germany became a republic after the Kaiser voluntarily exiled to Holland. Social
discontent following the proposal of a constitutional monarchy from the October Reform forced the
chancellor, Prince Max, to hand over power to Friedrich Ebert to create a coalition leftwing government.
1918, November ­ EbertGroener Agreement. The Supreme Army Command agreed to cooperate with the new
coalition government in return for their promise of authority within Army officers and the opposition to
revolutionary socialism.
1919, August ­ Weimar Constitution. The constitution was signed by Friedrich Ebert. Article 48 entitled the President
to emergency decrees. Established Parliamentary Representation, allowing splinter parties to gain
seats. Traditional institutes, i.e. the judiciary system, were allowed to continue.
1919, June ­ The Treaty of Versailles. Accepted by the coalition government. Germany lost lots of territory,
including the Saar which was rich in coal. Accepted reparations of £6.6 billion set in 1921. Accepted
article 231, war guilt. Accepted the disarmament to 100,000 men.
1922, April ­ Rapallo Pact. Germany and the USSR secured economic and military cooperation. In return for
military training, Germany would gain economic aid.
1923, September ­ `Passive Resistance' Stopped. Stresemann called off `Passive Resistance' and resumed
reparation payments.
1923, December ­ Currency Reform. The Rentenmark was introduced to deal with hyperinflation.
1924, April ­ The Dawes Plan. The Dawes Committee was formed and reviewed Germany's economic situation,
conclusively setting payment plans for Germany's reparations.
1925, October ­ Locarno Pact. Mutual agreement between Germany, France and Belgium concerning boundries.
Demilitarisation of the Rhineland was agreed to become permanent. Arbitration treaties agreed to settle
future disputes peacefully.
1926, April ­ The Treaty of Berlin. Germany and the USSR furthered military and economic alliances by assuring
their friendship, but not alliance.
1928, August ­ KelloggBriand Pact. Nations committed to demilitarisation, this included Germany.
1929 ­ Young Plan. Germany accepted reparation payments until 1988.
19251929 ­ German Golden Years. Exports grew by 40 per cent. Culture flourished.
1930, December ­ Brüning's Economic Policy. Presidential decree created huge public spending cuts, criticised
by the Nazi Party and allowed their power to rise.
1933, March ­ Enabling Act. Full powers were diverted to the cabinet. The Nazi Party had managed to dismantle the
Weimar government and its constitution within two months of being in power.
1933, March ­ Minister of Economics. Schacht becomes minister of Economics and leads the nation into growth of
employment, reducing unemployment by 2.1 million within one year.
1933, May ­ Creation of the German Labour Front. All Trade Unions were united under the DAF, effectively
banning strikes.
1933, July ­ Opposition Illegal. The Nazi Party became the only legal party after all political parties are dismantled.
1933, July ­ The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring. Compulsory sterilisation pf those
with hereditary conditions, such as, Schizophrenia.
19331934 ­ Gleichschaltung. `Coordination' of Germany under Adolf Hitler, which resulted in his absolute power.
1934 ­ Concordat Signed. Educational control was taken away from the Länder and centralised.
1934, April ­ The Night of the Long Knives. Hitler was persuaded by the Conservatives, Army, Göring and Himmler
to oust Röhm and the SA, who threatened a `Second Revolution'.
1934, August ­ Chancellor to Führer. Hindenburg died and Hitler combined the post of chancellor and president to
make him Führer. Army make an oath of loyalty to him.
1935, September ­ Nuremburg Race Laws. Removed Jewish citizenship to Germany.
1936, October ­ FourYear Plan. Under Göring, the nation is plunged into a wartime economy to prepare it for its
eventual European invasion. Military spending had almost tripled by the start of the war.
1938, November ­ Kristallnacht. Extermination of Jews all over Germany.
1939, August ­ NaziSoviet Pact. Germany and the USSR agree on carving up Poland.
1939, December ­ War Economy Decree. Vast programmes of war production, including submarines and aircraft.
1941, December ­ Rationalisation Decree. An intended reform of the economy to eliminate the waste of labour
and materials.
1942, January ­ Wannsee Conference. The `Final Solution' is decided upon and Jews are systematically murdered in
concentration camp gas chambers.

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Sunday 9th May 2010German HistoryJonathan CarradiceFrench
Weimar Germany History ­ Timeline
1918, November ­ German Republic declared. Weimar socialist coalition government was created.
1918, November ­ Government signs Armistice. World War One ended, resulting in 2.5 million dead Germans,
the `Stab in the back' myth was created by German nationalists who believed that the new government
committed treason.
1919, January ­ Sparticist Uprising Suppressed. Communist group was resisted by the Weimar government
using rightwing group, the Freikorps and the Army.…read more

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Sunday 9th May 2010German HistoryJonathan CarradiceFrench
1930, March ­ Socialist government collapsed. No government after the economic collapse was able to
regain parliamentary
Support, Conservative Authoritarian government reliant on the Presidential powers comes into
1930, March ­ Heinrich Brüning became Chancellor. Relied on President to pass policies, rather than the
1930, September ­ Nazi Party gain support. Germany become more inclined to vote National Socialist to resolve
economic issues.
1931, July ­ Reparation payments suspended.…read more

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Sunday 9th May 2010German HistoryJonathan CarradiceFrench
the Presidential powers became the new system.
1932, May ­ Brüning forced to resign. Although stopping reparations, he depended on Presidential protection.
Papen appointed Chancellor. Replaced Brüning and created a `Cabinet of Barons'.
1932, July ­ Papen called a State of Emergency. Nazi violence from the SA ended.
1932, November ­ Papen dismissed. Unpopular due to unelected power,
1932, December ­ Schleicher appointed Chancellor.…read more


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