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A fully globalised world:
· Global language
· Single culture
· Territorial differences and identities would
· Spread of western culture/values?
· Capitalism
· American culture?…read more

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Labour Migration
· Post war migration from LEDCs to do the lower
paid and unskilled jobs that could not be filled by
the resident workforce
· Greatest movement was during the 1960s in
Western Europe
· Since 1970s, recessions and immigration control
have reduced this type of labour flow…read more

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Trade Blocs
· Loose arrangements for fostering free trade e.g. APEC
· Complete economic integration e.g. EU
· Promote track between members
· Generate more external trade
· Raise the standard of living
Benefits/costs vary:
· NAFTA ­ USA gains most, Mexico least
· Integration least successful in LEDCs
· EU `periphery countries' set to gain regional development but `core'
countries gain the most
· Regional development funds attract LEDCs
· Greatest benefit is where there is a strong member economy…read more

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Transnational Corporations
· TNC = a firm which controls operations in more than one country even if it doesn't
own those countries
· About 37,000 TNCs worldwide
· 1% own half the total investments in the world!
· Branch plants move, open and close according to profit
e.g. Ford, UK, USA ----------- Spain, Brazil
· TNCs go to LEDCs:
· Cheaper wage costs
· Working conditions ­ pensions, holidays, sick pay, compassionate leave (LEDC laws
may not require these elements)
· Environmental legislation:
­ May not be as strict/not exist at all
­ TNCs pay a lot less in cleaning their emissions/waste…read more

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Newly Industrialised Countries
· Over 80% of the output is from Asian countries (manufacturing)
· S.E countries dominate
· Also Brazil and Mexico
Which countries are NICs?
· Industrialising ­ expansion of manufacturing and also associated with increases in
standards of living
· Mainly S.E Asia ­ S Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore. `Asian Tigers'
Classification of a NIC:
Must have 2 of the following;
1. Manufacturing sector's share of GDP should be at least 20%
2. It's share of total employment should be at least 20%
3. It's share of manufacturing goods at exports should be at least 50%…read more

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appears to be about globalisation

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