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Waves
Progressive wave (moving) carry energy &does not transfer material.
Wave caused by something making particles or fields oscillate at source. The oscillations pass
through medium as wave travels and carries energy. Wave transfers energy away from source so
source of wave loses energy.

We know waves carry energy because:…

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Measuring Waves

Displacement, x ­ measure in meters. How far a point on wave has moved from its
undisturbed position.
Amplitude, A ­ measured in meters. Maximum magnitude of displacement,










Wavelength , measured in meters. Length of one whole wave oscillation or wave cycle









Period, T ­ measured in seconds.…

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Wave Speed













Distance travelled is WL
Time taken to travel 1 WL is period of wave which is equal to 1
f






Electromagnetic Wave Speed in a Vacuum

1

C = 3.00 x 108 ms

Measuring Speed of Sound












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Measuring Wave Speed in Water












1) Record depth of tank with ruler
2) Use ripple tank dipper to create vibrations with regular freq. in tank
3) Dim main lights and turn on strobe light
4) Inc. freq. of strobe light from 0 until waves appear to be standing still, this…

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Longitudinal ­ displacement of particles or fields is along direction of energy propagation.
Example: Sound.
Sound waves have alternate compressions and rarefactions of the medium it travels through.
Some type of earth quake shockwaves are also longitudinal (pwaves).







Polarised
Waves
Shaking rope by moving hand up and down or side…

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Superposition of Waves and Formation of Stationary Waves
Stationary Waves ­ superposition of 2 progressive waves with same freq., WL or amplitude
moving in opposite directions. No energy transmitted.














































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At node, theres total destructive interferance
At antinode, theres constructive interference


First Harmonic ­ stationary wave vibrating at its lowest possible freq.

In figure 3.6 theres one loop with node at each end. ½ WL fits onto string so WL is double length of
string.
1
f=2l T



Second Harmonic…

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