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Water Usage in HICs
Agriculture (39%) use water to irrigate crops, using automated machines that use lots of water.
Industry (47%) Water is used in production and for cooling. Some use 1million litres a day
Domestic (14%) piped water supplies used for baths (150L) and washing machines (100L) other
Water Usage in LICs
Agriculture (91%) Less efficient and require man power. Water is wasted in evaporation.
Industry (5%) There is less industry, more small cottage shops not requiring much water.
Domestic (4%) use wells and communal taps which take time to get to so water is saved.
With greater wealth, people use more water as they have more luxury items, people go on holiday,
which requires water in tourists attractions and hygiene methods use more water.
There are 3 main sources of water:
Aquifers are underground stores of water found in porous rocks. Water is extracted through
bore holes. If you do not extract water then it leads to an increased risk in flooding. The
London Basin supplies water for London.
Reservoirs are artificial lakes held behind dams to store water for drinking and recreation.
The ideal location is a river valley with steep sloped sides. Kielder water is a river regulationg
reservoir holding 200billion litres. It releases water into the north Tyne. Pumps take water
and pipes transfer it to the river Wear and Tees.
Rivers are a source of water for 750,000 people in Florida. Water is cleaned and placed into
an aquifer for storage so it stays cool, does not evaporate and does not take up space.
Water surplus receiving more water as precipitation than is lost by evapotranspiration.
Water deficit losing more water by evapotranspiration than is gained by precipitation.
Physical water scarcity there is a lack of water in the area.
Economical water scarcity there is a supply of water but a lack of resources to make it available.
Water supply problems in HICs:
Quality is monitored by the drinking water inspectorate in line with EU regulations. In 1992
1.7% (0.1% in 2007) of water was below standard. This is linked to contamination from
nitrogen based fertilizers washing nitrates into local rivers and groundwater.
Spatial variability is the difference in the distribution of rainfall and the population. North
and South UK in the north there is lots of rain but a smaller population and in the south
there is less rain but a big population. ( 1
3 people live in SE but only has 800mm rain a year)
Seasonal variability - Spain, receives most of its rain in the winter, but in the summer t has
many tourists who require water in luxury items.
Leakage is when water escapes through broken pipes. London's Victorian pipes are
100years old and 30% of water is lost (3.5 billion litres or £1,512,000)
Water supply problems in LICs:
Access is difficult due to lack of funds, infrastructure, limited rainfall and difficulties storing
water. Kombagora is on a steep and narrow ridge women go down this three times a day.
Takkas is on a plateau and it takes 2hrs to get to water.
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