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Water

Water is covalently bonded, it has a boiling point of 100 degrees and freezing point of 0
degrees. Water is essential for all life on earth ­ it is used as a solvent, a coolant in power
stations and water is also decomposed in the Haber process to get…

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We get our water from reservoirs. Water flows into the reservoirs from rivers. For humans
water should contain low levels of dissolved salts/ions and microorganisms.
Water goes from reservoirs into water treatment works for treatment. Here water passes
through mesh screens to remove large solid material. The water is treated…

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Hard water

Hard water is water containing dissolved calcium or magnesium ions ­ these ions are
dissolved in the water when it comes into contact with rocks. There are two types of hardness:

Temporary hardness is caused as when rain falls it dissolves carbon dioxide making
carbonic acid. This reacts…

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Scum

Soft water readily forms a lather but hard water it does not.
Hard water contains Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions in solution. These ions react with soap to form scum.
This is because soap is sodium stearate, which reacts with calcium ions to form insoluble
calcium or magnesium stearate which…

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