War and welfare - Domestic Britain: 1918-51

This a neat table covering key areas for the 5th question of the OCR AS module, Domestic Britain: 1918-51.

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General economic Health Education Social security Employment Housing
All welfare measures Huge public health crisis following Severe disruption due to Process of evacuation ­ relocation War economy had eliminated Housing boom of the 1930s halted
limited by post-war the war evacuation/bombing etc. of 1.5 million children ­ increased unemployment so full employment by war
economic decline Almost 400,000 service people Severe shortage of teachers from class consciousness as many more was enjoyed from 1943-5 German bombings destroyed or
World trade in a missing or seriously wounded war effort ­ men and qualified became aware of the impoverished GVT directed movement of labour damaged about 3.5 million
period of stagnation 86,000 injured from bombings individuals notably absent lives of inner-city children during the war to coordinate the homes ­ 2 million left homeless
due to conflict's Only 21 million people insured ­ 20% of British schools suffered Public calls for greater anti-poverty war economy and drive the and ½ of the population at one
impact on international less than ½ the population extreme damage or complete measures emerged economy directly towards the war point displaced (22.5 million)
shipping Uninsured often experienced destruction during the war GVT's centralised effort 700,000 houses destroyed by
General exports financial hardship due to harsh cost Class issues remained in education direction/collective governing in Women playing greater role in Blitz
down 60% and of treatment with disparate numbers of working WW2 on issues such as rationing, British economy ­ 1.85 million Lack of building workers and a
invisible exports Regionalisation of quality of care and middle class students attending conscription and the direction of women in munitions production shortage/high cost of building
down 50% due to lack of GVT funding university labour demonstrated the GVT could and 1.64 women in other materials
(insurances etc.) Fear of mass bombings led to the handle large-scale social issues essential war work Population rise from post-war
Debt level at £4,198 Emergency Hospitals Scheme meaning the current patchwork Returning soldiers from immigration and baby boom
million ­ balance of (1939) ­ greater GVT control and system of welfare not necessary demobilisation could upset British Stress of war on family unit and
payments deficit of free treatment for bombing victims Poorest of country fell through economy and unbalance it, leading increased independence for
unprecedented £1 p White paper `A National Health existing schemes' gaps while the to a similar economic downturn that women had to led to divorce rate
billion a Service' published in 1944, schemes remained greatly followed the first war increasing by 250% from 1938
Military c proposing equal access to resented due to the demoralising Deficit financing to fund war Hence, severe housing shortage in
commitments t free-at-point-of-use health scheme nature of the means test embraced Keynesian economic Britain and set in context of key skill
increased fivefold regardless of economic status model ­ possible full-time adaption shortages in building industry
Dalton secured a $6 o Wartime centralised direction post-war Direction of labour by GVT during
billion loan but f demonstrated ability to successfully Statutory piece controls and war demonstrated ability to
strength of dollar led coordinate national schemes voluntary wage restraints during manage wide-scale social/economic
to a `dollar gap' which war ­ demonstrates directed schemes ­ renewed calls for key
meant Britain faced a r economy embraced during war GVT involvement in housing
severe shortage of US
currency & struggled
to repay the US loan
Harsh winter of 1947
led to severe food
shortages & return to
Dalton and later Cripps
forced to introduce
austerity measures
Wage freeze
introduced in 1948
Welfare cuts were
also introduced
M National Health Service Act of 1946 ­ Primary school education drastically National Insurance Act of 1946 ­ `cradle 1944 ­ a white paper on unemployment Ministry of Town and Country Planning
e formed a National Health Service in expanded from 1942-7 to to grave' measure which provided was published founded in 1943
a 1948 accommodate expected baby social security for the National Following the war, GVT encouraged Act passed in 1944 gave
s boomers Insurance-paying population private investment in industry, authority/means to LAs to
u National Assistance Act of 1948 ­ supported local authority measures redevelop bombed-out and `slum'
School leaving age increased to 15
r provided supported for those who to tackle unemployment and areas
in 1947
e struggled to contribute to the national
KEY: Significant information Key figures Key concept/act/white paper etc.

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Butler's Education Act ­ formed a insurance, covering the very neediest attempted to limit inflation through From 1945-8, 157,000 `pre-fab'
tripartite system of secondary of society price control houses assembled
t education ­ grammar, secondary (pre-constructed)
a modern, vocational Distribution of Industry Act (1943) ­
k tackled structural unemployment in New Towns Act of 1946 ­ allowed the
e most depressed areas of country GVT to designate areas as new towns
n Nationalisation of industries and passed development control
beginning with coal, civil aviation, functions…read more

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Left-wingers viewed the service as
p providing a low standard of care ­
l mainly benefitting the middle
i classes who could now access the
best doctors and health care for
free ­ and questioned the
i continued private health case which
o promoted inequality
n NHS failed to fulfil expectations
s invested in it
In 1951, financial difficulties forced
GVT to impose charges on dental
treatment & the provision of
spectacles as well as previously
imposed prescription charges
Aneurin Bevan…read more

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