Volcano Case Studies (A2 Geog. Tectonics Topic)

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Name Date Basic Info Deaths Impact Responses Management
Mt.Etna, Italy July Resulted in the subduction Holiday villas damaged, towns and villages People immediately Rebuilding of damaged
2001 of the Eurasian plate under destroyed (Catania). moved out of the area. buildings.
the African pate. Vegetation destroyed ­ farms covered in US Army helicopters Scientist improved mon
Friction caused the crust to ash. dropped 2 tone of the volcano.
melt and this forced its Animals killed, habitats destroyed. concrete blocks to stop Planning of emergency
way up into the magma Vineyards wiped out in Zafferana. lava flows. services and evacuation
chamber as pressure build Roads destroyed ­ difficult to access the Earth dams built to Tourism to generate inc
up it released the magma area. re-direct lava flow. from the area.
to be released in an Ski areas ruined. Italian government Italian government gav
explosion. Airport closed due to ash on the runway. gave £5.6m of aid. breaks to help villagers
through the crisis.
Mt. St. Helens, May It was a result of seismic 57 deaths Lava flows and ash filling into Removal and disposal People were rehoused f
USA 1980 activity (Juan de Fuca mostly from Spirit Lake and log jams and of ash took a long time the area.
plate moving towards poisonous ash blocking cannel of the ­ 10 weeks in Yakima
N.American plate) which gases. Toutle River. and cost $2.2million. Soil fertility improved d
began in March, which Large Flooding from blocked river ash.
lasted for 3 months causing amounts of washed away road and rail Governor of
the magma to rise within wildlife killed bridges. Washington State After the eruption Mt.St
the mountain, as it grew a by the blast Crops ruined. established `red' and was made into a Nation
large bulge grew on the and volcanic 200 houses, 27 bridges, 24km `blue' zones limiting Volcanic Monument and
north flank of the volcano, ash. and 300km of highways access around the a tourist attraction.
due to a blockage in the destroyed. volcano.
main vent resulting in the Mudflows from glacier, snow
growth of viscous lava in and tephra which after
the side of the volcano. 90mins of the eruption moved
43 river km.
Ash fall created temporary but
major problems with
transportation, sewage
disposal and water treatment
Visibility decreased during as
fall, closing many roads and
highways ­ Interstate 90 between
Seattle and Spokane was closed

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Air travel disrupted for a few days
to 2 weeks as several airports in
Eastern Washington shut down
because of ash accumulation and
poor visibility.
Ash ­ contaminated oil systems
and clogged air filters.
Fine ash caused short circuits in
electrical transformers causing
power black outs.
Soufriere July Erupted after lying 19 people Damaged houses from material that flew British Government: New permanent housin
Hills, 1995- dormant for many dead. down the northern flank of the volcano. Set up exclusion zones.…read more

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In April evacuation was that was being given ou
steam emissions. cloud. in place of almost half a volcano.
From March there were Buildings collapsed from the weight of the million evacuees being 1mln people evacuated
minimal eruptions and ash. placed in public initial eruption.
seismic activity. 650,000 workers forced out of work ­ buildings for shelter ­
12th June 1991 destruction of farms, shops, factories. resulted in minimal Although the response i
Explosions ­ steam clouds USA had to evacuate their Air Force Base.…read more


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