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Violence after the California Gold Rush (1849)

o The Indians in the west had little conflict with the Whites until the California Gold Rush of 1849.

o The influx of Whites looking for gold had a terrible effect on the Indians. Hunting and gathering
were disrupted by the mines, leaving…

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He was killed in a further village massacre at Washita, Oklahoma in 1868. The soldiers this time
were led by Lt. Col. George Custer.

Red Cloud's War (1865-68):

o The Bozeman Trail connected the Platte River with the mines of Montana. It passed through the
hunting grounds of the Sioux,…

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Wincester rifles, while Custer's soldiers had single-shot Springfields.

o Custer and all 225 of his command were killed. The army and the government wanted revenge,
but the Indians were defeated by the weather and the loss of many horses.

o The destruction of the buffalo herds (the "Great Plains Massacre")…

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o In 1876 negotiations had stalled. The Dreamer Cult of Smohalla called for the extermination of
the Whites. War became unavoidable when 20 settlers were killed by some drunken Indians.

o Chief Joseph fought a masterly retreat into Idaho and Montana, notable for its relative lack of
atrocities against civilians.…

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