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TRUMAN (1945-1953)
Truman Doctrine 1947

Justifying $4 million aid to Greece and Turkey
National Security Act 1947
Set up National Security Council (Foreign policy experts who advice President)
Set up CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)
Marshall Plan 1947
Help European economies recover
Domino effect fear
1947-1951 cost $12 billion- only…

Page 2

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Not very successful Diem used money to finance his own personal power and ignored US

Battle at Dien Bien Phu 1954

Intended as a trap against Vietminh and Guerrilla Tactics
Eisenhower sent bombers and 200 technicians to aid French (1st Us personell)
Underestimated Vietminh, French surrender and lose North…

Page 3

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Immediately increased defence spending by $16 billion and increased nuclear arsenal 1960
Appointed McNamara as an advisor (Hawk)
Reduced statistics by eliminating human factor
Militant against communism
1961 Military rose from $220-262 million
End of 1963 $1.5 million a day to Diem
Counter insurgency `Green Berets'
Military `advisors' : 800…

Page 4

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2000 ARVN troops and 113 armoured US personnel helicopters, carriers and bombers
(+advisors) surround Ap Bac
US+ARVN unaware of the 350 guerrillas
ARVN troops refuse to fight, 5 US helicopters and pilots were lost
Shows that in early 1963 even with US support, Diem incapable of winning the war

Page 5

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Regiments of PAVN (Peoples Army of Vietnam) began to invade South
Armed with Soviet and Chinese anti-aircraft weaponry
Popular support among peasants
Controlled ½ S.Vietnam
Saigon Bar attacked

Sending in Ground Troops

Congress supported 408:7
Retaliation against VC
3500 marines 1965
18,000 support troops 6th April 1965
$700 million for…

Page 6

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Home front feared a stalemate situation; anti-war parties & movements grew (university
students/Draft dodging) & opposed Johnson in upcoming presidential elections & did not

NIXON (1968 -1973)

The Nixon Doctrine 1968: Nations are responsible for their own defence

Implied intention to withdraw for Vietnam
`Peace with honour'

Page 7

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Invasion Of Cambodia 1970

The Spring Offensive 1972

The Paris Peace Agreement JAN 1973


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