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The Variety of Life

10.1 Haemoglobin
Haemoglobin Molecules
The haemoglobin are a group of chemically similar molecules found in a wide variety of organisms.
Structure as follows:
-primary structure: consisting of 4 polypeptide chains
-secondary structure: in which each of these polypeptide chains is coiled into a helix
-tertiary structure:…

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An organism living in an environment with little oxygen requires haemoglobin to readily combine
with oxygen, if it to absorb enough of it. Provided that the organisms metabolic rate is not very
high, the fact that this form of haemoglobin does not release its oxygen as readily into the

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Effects of carbon dioxide concentration
Haemoglobin has a reduced affinity for oxygen in the presence of carbon dioxide.
The greater the concentration of carbon dioxide, the more readily the haemoglobin releases its
oxygen (the Bohr Effect).
Explains why the behaviour of haemoglobin changes in different regions of the body.


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Unbranched chains are wound into a tight coil that makes the molecule compact.
Structure of a starch molecule
Main role of starch is energy storage, something that it is
suited for because
Insoluble and therefore does not tend to draw water into
the cells by osmosis.
Being insoluble, it does…

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Plant cell are also eukaryotic cells. Therefore have a distinct nucleus and membrane-bound
organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. An example of a plant cell is the leaf palisade cell.

Leaf Palisade cell

Leaf palisade cell is a typical plant cell.
Function to carry out photosynthesis
Main features suit it…

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Differences between plant and animal cells

Plant Cells Animal Cells
Cellulose cell wall surrounds the cell as well as a Only a cell-surface membrane surrounds the cell
cell-surface membrane
Chloroplasts are present in large numbers in Chloroplast are never present
most cells
Normally have a large, single, central vacuole If…


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