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Utilitarianism

Jeremy Bentham
Bentham worked on legal reform and wrote The Principles of Morals and Legislation, in
which he put forward his ethical theory.
We can divide his theory into three parts:
His view on what drove human beings, and what goodness and badness was all
about.
The principle of…

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In the hedonic calculus Bentham considers how strong the pain or pleasure is, whether it is
short-lived or life- long and how likely it is that there will be pain or pleasure.
He considers how immediate the pain or pleasure is and how likely it is to lead to more…

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He argued that, `Human beings has faculties more elevated than the animal appetites and,
once made conscious of them, do not regard anything as happiness which does not include
their gratification'
`It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates
dissatisfied than…

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Jeremy Bentham theory has a number of clear benefits.
It seems reasonable to link morality with the pursuit of happiness and the avoidance of pain
and misery, and this connection would receive popular support.
It also seems natural to consider to consequences of our actions when deciding what to do.…

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One might argue that base sexual appetite is a lower pleasure than the refineries of excellent
opera, and yet passionate and tender lovemaking could be much more important for a couple
than a visit to Madam Butterfly.
Indeed a person might attend opera frequently and without much thought and treat…

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Singer makes it clear that newborn babies are not persons as, like the unborn baby, they are
not autonomous, and they do not see themselves as having a future.
In effect they have no interests to take into account. The issue of what defines a
person who has interests is…

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