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Farming - especially sheep-farming - has been done in
highland areas for centuries.
Sheep in the Yorkshire Dales ------------------------->
It has shaped the landscape, helped to build local communities
and is an important part of local economies.
Farming may harm the environment.
Trees and other vegetation need to be cleared to provide grazing. This vegetation is
important for protecting the landscape from erosion and for providing habitats for wildlife.
The introduction of too many animals leads to over-grazing. Over-grazing causes soil
erosion which may squeeze out wildlife and pollute water sources. For many farmers this
way of life is becoming less economically viable.
Conifer forests have been planted in many highland areas.
Forestry creates local jobs and provides timber.
New conifer forests can help prevent soil erosion and can help counter the impact of
The Yorkshire Dales ----------------------------
Forestry may push out other vegetation and force other
activities - such as farming - into decline.
For some wildlife, the forest will provide a habitat, but other
animals will lose their habitat.
Some people argue that conifer forests debase the
landscape - though others think they enhance it.
Tourism in the highlands
Mountain biking -----------------------------
The lakes and mountains of glacial highland areas
attract British and international tourists.
They visit the highlands for activities such as skiing,
climbing, mountain-biking, hiking and hang gliding.
This gives people who live in towns an opportunity to
enjoy the countryside, and brings wealth to the local
people who provide them with accommodation and
A car park in the Cairngorms National Park ----
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Not everyone in local communities welcome tourists. Some fear interference with their
livelihoods (eg farmers), or cause congestion and pollution by bringing their cars and
leaving rubbish on hillsides.
Tourist developments like building ski lifts can spoil the landscape.
Too much recreational activity may damage fragile environments (eg soil erosion can
interfere with flora and fauna).
Highland water works
Glacial valleys, with their steep sides and high rainfall, are ideal for damming to create
reservoirs for drinking water and hydro-electric power.…read more
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Lowland areas attract tourists who do recreational activities including horse riding,
walking, fishing, boating and many others.
Fertile areas are also good for creating golf courses.
Badly-managed tourism can cause damage to the environment through soil erosion,
pollution and over fishing.
It can also interfere with local livelihoods (eg those of farmers).
Golf courses take land out of agricultural use and remove variety from the landscape.…read more