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USEFUL TIPS FOR EXAM

Musical Device

Sequence
Imitation
Pedal (long note)
Drone ­ Indian
Ostinato (rhythmic, melodic)
Riff (moves around the chord)



Orchestral Families

Strings
Woodwind
Brass
Percussion



Rhythmic device

Swung
Triplets
Dotted



Articulation

Staccato
Legato



Dynamics

Pianissimo
Piano
Mezzo-piano
Mezzo-forte
Forte
Fortissimo
Crescendo
Diminuendo
Sforzando

Tempo

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Crotchet/minim = ...BPM
Grave
Lento
Largo
Adagio
Moderato
Andante
Allegretto
Allegro
Vivace
Presto
Rall(entando), Rit(ardanto)
Accel(erando)
Rubato (not strict)
A tempo



Chords

I, IV, V
Imperfect ­ I, V (carry on)
Perfect ­ V, I (finish)
Interrupted ­ V, VI (wrong)
Plagal ­ IV, I (amen)



Melodic Movement

By step…

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Drum roll
Double / triple tonguing
Flutter tonguing
Con sordino



Metre

Duple
Triple
Quadruple



Intervals

Unison
Octaves
Thirds
Sixths
Fourths / fifths (oriental, empty)
Seconds / sevenths (clashy)



Tonality

Major
Minor
Atonal



Ornamentation

Trill
Turn
Mordent




Voices

Soprano
Alto
Tenor

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Bass
Counter tenor (high professional male)



Texture

Few / many layers
Dense / sparse
Monophonic ­ 1 layer
Homophonic ­ tune and accompaniment
Polyphonic ­ two and at the same time of equal importance
Hetrophonic ­ decorated versions of same tune



Form

Binary
Ternary
Rondo

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