Useful notes to read over before the exam! As level biolgy

This is something i wrote up of things that i needed to remember before the as-level AQA biology exam (unit 1), hope some of the notes help!

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  • Created by: ella
  • Created on: 20-01-13 12:20
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For the biology exam:
Whenever talking about enzyme or antibodies specify they are proteins
with a specific tertiary shape
`What is the difference between the structure of a cholera bacterium
from the structure of an epithelial cell from the small intestine'...Cholera
bacterium is prokaryotic!
`How the epithelial cells that line the small intestine are adapted for the
absorption of glucose' can specify that there are carrier proteins for
active transport AND carrier proteins for facilitated diffusion , many
mitochondria which...produce ATP (for active transport)
ORS ­ increases uptake of sodium ions/glucose (by co-transport) lowers
water potential in cells/water moves out of intestine into cells/by
Memory cells have an immunological memory and `recognise' the same
antigen if it enters the body again
Induced fit model: As the enzyme changes shape, it puts a strain on the
substrate molecule. This distorts a particular bon and consequently
lowers the activation energy needed to break it.
Muscle surrounding the bronchioles contract in someone with asthma
Whenever talking about ORS mention co-transport and how sodium
and glucose are taken up from the lumen
Mention that the SAN acts as the pacemaker
In hydrolysis a water molecule is added! i.e. lactose + water glucose +
Read the question!!!
Describing diffusion pathways... through alveolar epithelium and then
through capillary epithelium
Circulation of blood!
Inhibitors not only have a complementary shape to the active site but a
similar shape to the substrate
`Tests using monoclonal antibodies are specific, explain why...' mention
it has a specific sequence of amino acids which gives it a specifically
shaped tertiary structure
1mm = 1000 um

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In talking about taking loads of results to get rid of anomalous results,
mention how a mean can be taken
How active transport is different from facilitated diffusion: It uses
metabolic energy in the form of ATP, molecules or ions move up a
concentration gradient
Why is there a delay before a new wave leaves the AVN: So the atria
can empty before the ventricles contract
Loads of substrate added...…read more

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Talk about oxygen when explaining how a blood clot can lead to a
myocardial infarction
Why some vaccines are not taken orally... Broken down by
enzymes/molecules are too large to be absorbed
Whenever talking about memory cells, specify they induce a
greater/more rapid response and that the virus is destroyed before it
can cause any harm
Herd immunity...Virus cannot replicate/is destroyed...non-vaccinated
people are more likely to contact vaccinated people
Sometimes the question may be looking for pros/cons of
vaccination...i.e.…read more


Mark Austin

Excellent set of last minute notes, good summary of most topics! Fair to say I will be reading these on the morning of my exam this Tuesday. Thank you :) 

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