Urban's call for 1st Crusade

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The council at Clermont and the response to Urban II's call for a crusade
Why and how did Alexios request What changes to the church had been
help from Pope Urban in 1095? made by Pope Gregory VIII and Pope
The Seljuk Turks had been Urban by 1095?
expanding their Empire and Church reforms
getting ever closer to More uniform commitment to
Constantinople. discipline, prayer and study
Gained land as close as 60 Clearer division between
miles from Constantinople sacred and worldly matters
Beat Byzantines at Battle of such as clerical marriage
Manzikert 1071 Pope Gregory wanted to
Moved into Byzantine Empire impose authority on Kings and
and took land, farms etc... Emperors in matters such as
appointment of Bishops
Pope Urban wanted to assert it
Why did many believe that violence What were the key problems faced by
and religion were compatible? Pope Urban in 1095?
o Priests and Bishops were Great Schism of 1054
involved (William of diminished his authority
Normandy's brother, Bishop over the Eastern Church
Odo, fought with him) Priests and he wanted that
and Bishops are religious, it power back.
must be all right. Pope Gregory (the pope
o Just war Theory developed by before him) had a major
St Augustine dispute with the `Holy
­ just cause, Roman Emperor' Henry
declared by legit authority, IV of Germany in the
min. violence `Investiture Contest'.
= good excuse! Pope wanted more power
declared his role
`superior to that of all
earthly rulers' therefore
wanted to be involved
with political matters and
spiritual. He decided
who was to be appointed
Bishop. Not liked by
`Holy Roman Emperor'.
Why did Pope Urban call the First

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The council at Clermont and the response to Urban II's call for a crusade
To help his ally, Alexios
I, emperor of the
Byzantine Empire.…read more


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