Urbanisation Notes

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AQA A Specification: Changing Urban environment notes
Urbanisation
Specification says:
Urbanisation is a global phenomenon
Students should appreciate the different pace and causes of urbanisation
in the rich and poor world
Notes
Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of the world's population
which is living in urban areas
It is a global trend ­ not just in MEDCs(more economically developed
countries e.g. Britain)
Currently more than 50% of the world's population live in cities
Most of the population of MEDCs already live in cities and so the speed
of urbanisation is slowing
Not much of the population of LEDCs (less economically developed
countries e.g. Mali) already live in cities and so the rate of urbanisation is
quicker than MEDCs
Urbanisation is caused by ruralurban migration which is the movement
of people from rural areas(countryside) to urban areas(cities)
Ruralurban migration is caused by push and pull factors
Push factors are problems which drive people away from rural areas,
these include:
Shortage of services such as health care and schools
Shortage of jobs in the area
Low wages ­ people may struggle to earn enough to meet their needs
Pull factors are reasons why people want to move to urban areas. For
example in cities there are:
Lots of jobs due to lots of industry attracted by better infrastructure and
more workers
Higher wages ­ in places such as China the average income in cities is
around three times higher than that in the countryside
Better facilities as more people to pay for them
Also as its normally young people who move to cities, these people are
more likely to have children in the urban area and thus this also increases the
proportion of people living in cities
Better health care in cities extends life expectancy and ergo people live
longe which increases the proportion of people in urban areas

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