Urbanisation Summary Notes

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Urbanisation: The growth in proportion of a country's population living in urban areas.
Urbanisation is caused by rural-urban migration and a naturally increasing population. Migrants tend
to be young people seeking employment, who may then have children, further increasing the urban
Rural Push Factors Urban Pull Factors
Absence of agricultural land, often caused by Services in cities are superior to those in rural
the division of land between offspring after a areas; medical care and education are easier to
parent passes. This means the average size of access.
an individual's land decreases until it is too
small to be profitable.
Population growth has led to over farming, soil Employment in factories and industry is
degradation and lowering yields of food. abundant, and better paid, in cities.
Government policy of cash cropping designated A large informal sector offers more employment
areas of land means former owners cannot options if formal sector employment is lacking.
subsistence farm.
In Europe during the individual revolution of the 18/19th centuries a number of developments
occurred at the same time, allowing rapid urbanisation to occur. These factors include:
Agricultural revolution ­ loss of work and surplus of food for towns
Industrialisation ­ labour drawn in from countryside to work in factories
New power sources ­ coal used instead of water power, mining areas expanded
Improved transport ­ canals replaced by railways and then later motorised roads
Improvements in medicine and hygiene ­ people can live in close proximity with lesser risk of
As urban populations grow there is an increased demand for space, resources and services. If these
demands are not met, quality of life decreases:
Homes are built on land with environmental risks, such as swamps (Dharavi, Mumbai) or steep
hills susceptible to landslides (Rocinha, Rio)
There is often a lack of basic services such as clean water and waste disposal, raising the risk
of disease
Children do not have access to quality education or need to work to provide for their family,
making it harder to find formal employment later
The difference in wealth between slum and non-slum residents can cause social tensions
There is often high competition for formal employment so many migrants have to accept low
wages, little security and poor working conditions
Pressure on roads and railways increased congestion and air pollution

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Building new homes to replace slums
Improving services available in the slums
Involving residents in slum redevelopment
Case Study: Dharavi, Mumbai
Mumbai (formerly Bombay) is India's largest city
It is India's main finance centre, the home of Bollywood film and accounts for 70% of
maritime trade in India
Receives 1000+ migrants daily
Tax rates are low to attract companies and investment, but this means tax revenue is low
from which to provide services and improvements
Mumbai's population doubled between 1970 and 2001…read more

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A plan to combat poor quality of life, starting in 2004.
Includes 6 core targets:
o Increase housing availability and affordability
o Raise adequate financing and reduce admin expenditure
o Improve infrastructure for transport, increase the number of parking spaces
available and the number of motorways
o Make governance efficient and responsive
o Boost economy growth by 8-10%
o Upgrade other infrastructure
Dharavi land will be privatised.…read more

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Infections and disease under control Easy spread of infections and disease
Illegal hookups to electricity mains that are Illegal hook ups to electricity mains, or no
gradually improved to be safer and legal supply at all
Crime, prostitution and drug offences are Widespread social issues due to poverty and
infrequent due to strong social structures and lack of police control
cooperation between community and police
Settlement appears tidy and fairly organised; Settlement is untidy and disorganised; much
there is evidence of recycling activities and litter,…read more


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