Urban Regeneration Schemes 40 Mark Essay

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  • Created on: 15-02-15 14:00
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With reference to examples, evaluate the success or otherwise of urban regeneration schemes
in combating the causes and consequences of urban decline (40
Urban decline is the deterioration of the inner city often caused by lack of investment and
maintenance. These areas are typified by economic decline, personal poverty, social problems
and environmental decay.
In the UK, deindustrialisation of urban areas has led to unemployment, providing residents with
lower incomes. The lack of disposable income causes a lack of expenditure in local shops and
facilities with simultaneous reductions on housing investment (e.g. repairs). There is disinvestment
as local businesses start to close or move to new locations, causing further unemployment. The
local government starts to collect less money in tax whilst also having to pay more unemployment
benefit. This causes the economic and physical environment to suffer, and so the more affluent
begin to out-migrate, causing depopulation and a resultant change in the socio-economic status of
the area. This out-migration also leaves behind abandoned businesses and houses which become
derelict and vandalised with increased prevalence of graffiti, drug use and crime. Remaining
residents take less care of their houses and the local government has less money to spend on
roads, schools and hospitals. Education levels decrease and so does the residents' health, leading
to more sickness and days missed from work. It is due to this spiral of decline that urban areas
must be regenerated.
There are three main processes of re-urbanisation: property-led regeneration such as that which
occurred at the London Docklands, partnership schemes such as Hulme City Challenge and the
Park Hill flats regeneration, and also gentrification, for example Notting Hill.
Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) were set up in the 1980s and 1990s to take
responsibility for the physical, economic and social regeneration of selected inner city areas with
large amounts of derelict and vacant land. They are an example of property-led regeneration. They
were given planning approval powers over and above those of the local authority, and were
encouraged to spend public money on the purchase of land, the building of infrastructure and on
marketing to attract private investment. The intention was that private investment would be four
to five times greater than the public money initially invested.
The boards of UDCs, mostly made up of people from the local business community, had the power
to acquire, reclaim and service land prior to private sector involvement and to provide financial
incentives to attract private investors.
There were some criticisms of UDCs as people argued that the UDCs were too dependent on
property speculation and they lost huge sums of money through the compulsory purchase of land
that later fell in value. Furthermore, because they had greater powers than local authorities,
democratic accountability was removed. Locals complained that they had no involvement in the
developments taking place. Indeed, there were some examples, particularly in the London
Docklands, where local people felt physically and socially excluded by prestigious new housing and
high-technology office developments.

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The London Docklands is an area of urban regeneration. It suffered from industrial decline in the
1960s due to the shipping of goods around the world changing to larger vessels and a
container-based system. Ships were now too big for the London Docks and competition from new
and expanded ports such as Dover meant the London Docks went on to suffer huge dereliction
and by 1981 they had closed completely.…read more

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Environmental regeneration has taken place through the creation of pedestrian and cycle routes in
the area with access to the river and dock edge through waterside walkways. This, combined with
the planting of 200,000 trees, the creation of pedestrian bridges and 150ha of new open spaces,
as well as a water-based ecology park and London's first bird sanctuary at East India Dock,
provides an aesthetically pleasing environment, directly combating physical causes and
consequences of decline.…read more

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A more traditional pattern of housing development was designed,
with streets, squares, two storey houses and low rise flats which were to replace the mass of
concrete making up the crescents. By 1995, 50ha of land had been reclaimed, the majority of the
former deck access flats had been demolished, 600 new homes for rents had been built, and more
than 400 homes had been improved and refurbished. The main shopping area had been totally
rejuvenated, including the addition of an ASDA supermarket.…read more

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There was also £100 million capital injection from the developer, Urban Splash, who submitted
detailed plans to modernise the entire estate and create a more balanced community.
The partnership scheme has helped to improve an area of slum clearance that had fallen into a
state of dilapidation since the 1950s, providing an area of housing for residents. The area now has
a combination of 874 residential units and 140,000 square feet of commercial space e.g.…read more

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Notting Hill is a bustling urban area, but in the mid-eighteenth century it was a country hamlet
known for its gravel pits and roadside inns frequented by travellers. Later industrialisation
brought workers from the countryside, with landlords buying tiny terraced houses to rent to them.
In Victorian times it was a rough working-class area and by the 1950s it was an area of slums and
inner city deprivation.…read more

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Ultimately, the final result of a scheme is dependent on the area undergoing regeneration, the
organisation carrying it out, the amount of detail put into the planning of it and how much money
is invested. Successful schemes will also encourage local participation so that the needs of the
community can be addressed, exemplified in Hulme where quality of life was poor due to poor
living conditions and a lack of community cohesion, with many feeling isolated.…read more



mm are you realistically going to be able to write a 7 page essay in the exam?


No, this is just one I completed as homework. I purposefully tried to include everything purely for revision purposes :)

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